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Food Preserving FAQ

Frequently Asked Questions about Food Preserving

(C) Copyright 1998-2002 Eric Decker. All Rights Reserved.

Some portions may be Copyright prior to 1998 by others: Leslie Basel, Diane Ferrell, Anne Louise Gockel, Steven Kostur, Al Durtschi, Richard Thead.

This FAQ and all its constituent parts, as a collection of information, is Copyright 1998-2002 by Eric Decker, as a work of literature. Distribution by any electronic means is granted with the understanding that the article not be altered in any way. Permission to distribute in printed form must be obtained in writing. The removal of this copyright notice is forbidden.

This FAQ contains third party copyrighted information. Specific permission for replication for such information here has been granted to Eric Decker, FAQ Maintainer. You may replicate said info but ONLY as part of a FAQ part in its entirety. You may not replicate such information outside the FAQ format or anywhere else without getting permission to do so from the copyright holder(s). The existence of information in this FAQ does not convey any legal rights to use copyrighted information for any purpose other than to read it as part of RFP FAQ.

Disclaimer: No author represented in this FAQ is qualified to establish scheduled processes nor is any author a competent processing authority in the sense of 21 CFR 113.83 et alia.

Beware of anonymous posters who contravene known safety standards. Circa late 2001, early 2002, there is at least one poster active in RFP who has consistently repudiated long-standing food-preserving authorities.

This file is a compilation of shared knowledge and answers to frequently asked questions of the group rec.food.preserving. As such, this file is updated. Be a contributor - point out mistakes, write sections and reviews, provide us with new sources. All contributors will be cited in this file.

Special mention is hereby given to Leslie E. Basel for her core role in the founding of this newsgroup. Thank you Leslie.

Contributors listed in alphabetical order by surname:

Matt Albright, David G. Allbee

Leslie Basel, Rachel Beckford, Jean Bergeron, Brian Bigler, Alan Blacklock, Michael Boddy, Mike Bowers, Susan Brewer, Norman Brown, Teresa Bruckner, Rick Buchanan, Daniel Burke, Ralph Burr, Bob Baron, Don Buchan

Jennifer Cagle, Dave Calhoun, Tracy L. Carter, Robert Chislan, Naomi Counides, Suzanne Chandler, Bruce Carpenter

Emily Dashiell, Eric Decker, Richard De Castro, Al Durtschi, Ted Denison, Robb Dabbs

Diane Ferrell, Sandy Fifer, Derace Fridel, Jerry Fowler

H.B. Ghoddusi, Anne Louise Gockel, Lois Grassl, Patrick Grealish, Kate Gregory, Steve Gunnell

Bess Halle, Diane Hamilton, James Harvey, Patricia Hill, Paul Hinrichs, M. Zoe Holbrooks, Dirk W. Howard, Garry Howard,

Kevin Johnson, Stuart Johnson, Lynn E. Johnson-Conrad

Deana D. Karas, Mary Keith

Colonel I.F. Khuntilanont-Philpott,

Naera Kim, Henriette Kress, Betty Kohler, Steven Kostur, Al Kudsi, Mick Kunstelj

John Laidler, Joan Lane, Larry London, Ron Lowe

Linda Magee, Marie Martinek, Kathy Meade, Ron Meisenheimer, Linda Merinoff, Wendy Milner, Joshua H. Moffi, Richard Molay, the Morgans, Scott Murman

Daniel Nachbar, Louis "Butch" Nagel, Jean P. Nance, Susan Ness, Carol Nelson, Richard Nielsen, Hank Nolle, Stephen Northcutt

Nicole Okun, Paul Optiz, Lynn Otto

David Paxton, Gary Lee Phillips, Kim Pratt

Cassandra Richardson, Jim Richardson, Phil Rozanski

Barb Schaller, David Schwoegler, Clint Scott, Charles Scripter, Brenda Sharpe, David Sidwell, Doug Smart, Tom Sponheim, Michael Stallcup, Susan Hattie Steinsapir, Jean Sumption

John Taylor, Michael Teifel, Connie TenClay, Richard Thead, Steven Tobin, Tanith Tyrr

Logan Van Leigh

Anna Welborne, Elaine C. White, Ellen Wickberg, Don Wiss, Kate Wrightson, Ivan Weiss

Gary Yandle, Bobbi Zee

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Jewels of rec.food.preserving ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

These are the "Experts active in the newsgroup" folks that can and will provide you real-life, in-depth knowledge based on scientific fact. These folks have preserving skills coming out their ears and are capable of several if not all phases of preserving. If somebody else is better suited to answer you question you will most probably be advised of that.

These folks are known to us over several years and are known to be honest above ANY reproach and take very seriously all they post in RFP. Those folks often do extensive research before posting. They are human and sometimes will be in error - but that is so rare one should think of them as angels.

Watch for their articles as they are usually quite informative.

This list is dynamic. As others become known and their commitment to the Charter of RFP is shown, in time the value of their participation will be proven and they will become a Jewel of r.f.p. Persons who are no longer active in RFP or disregard the Charter of RFP will be retired - maybe permanently.

The process of selecting a person as a Jewel of R.F.P. is regrettably somewhat subjective. However it isn't that by much as we have extensive archives of this newsgroup since day one. We simply index on author and see the extensive contributions. We know these persons well. We know intimately the quality and care of their processes and postings.

------------------------------------- The Jewels of rec.food.preserving at this time are:

In alphabetical order by first name:

Barb Shaller (shaller_barb@nospam.htc.honeywell.com)

Eric (eric@nospam.getcomputing.com)

Ingrid Gordon (mapickle@nospam.coho.net

Blanche Nonken (momblanche@nospam.bigfoot.com)

Ross Reid (mrreid@nospam.golden.net)

Vicky Shaw (vickyshaw@nospam.home.com )

Jim Weller (jweller@nospam.ssmicro.com)

Ellen Wickberg (egw@nospam.direct.ca)


While every effort has been made to be clear, concise and accurate, no warranties are implied. What you do with the information presented here is your business. The same caveat applies to any communication you may have with any person in rec.food.preserving or for that matter by e-mail.

Charter, about Rec.Food.Preserving and this FAQ, and Introduction

* Where can I get this faq? * Why isn't this on the Web? * I have a refrigerator and live near 5 supermarkets. Why bother to preserve food?


Rec.food.preserving is a newsgroup devoted to the discussion of recipes, equipment, and techniques of food preservation. Current food preservation techniques that rightly should be discussed in this forum include canning, freezing, dehydration, pickling, smoking, salting, distilling, and potting. Foodstuffs are defined as produce (both fruits and vegetables), meat, fish, dairy products, culinary and medicinal herbs. Discussions should be limited to home-grown or home-preserved foods.


This newsgroup is for those who can, jar, and preserve foods for personal and family use. Due to liability and health concerns, we can not provide information here on methods of food packaging or preservation for products to be sold to the public. Please contact the agency or office in your area that handles such questions. Thank you for your interest!

rec.food.preserving has been a close-knit group since its inception. It has managed to stay that way but it has not been by accident. Over the years there has been a lot of effort expended by many RFPers into keeping the junk out of RFP. Those who have nothing good to say are invited to leave. We thank them for doing so.


The newsgroup rec.food.preserving was created in August 1994. Discussions tend to be seasonal, following the Northern Hemisphere growing season. We are a rapidly expanding but still tightly focused group; expect about 50-60 posts/day during the height of canning season, < 20-30 posts/day during the winter months. As of August 1999 there is quite an increase in traffic. Y2K concerns has awakened much latent intest in food preserving. Perchance it will continue. If you don't have access to rec.food.preserving on your news server (last I checked, the % of sites carrying the group was about 55%), after politely requesting the group from your sysadmin or administrator, you have a number of options:

*1.) Sign up with a different ISP - Internet Service Provider. *2.) Browse the archives of http://www.dejanews.com using Internet Explorer or Netscape *3.) Email to access USENET newsgroups, by emailing to one of these addresses: rec.food.preserving@news.demon.co.uk or rec.food.preserving@ cs.ttu.edu.

FAQ versions are numbered to coincide with the year. 1998 has a prefix of 3, 1999 mwill be 4, 2000 will be 5, etc. The suffix indicates the month of issue. 3.10 means 1998, 10th month.

[Where can I get this faq?]

Several ways. Wait until it gets posted to the newsgroup rec.food.preserving, around the 20th of each month. Another way of getting this FAQ is to get it in the 'nnn' pieces from www.dejanews.com archive, however this will require a fair amount of work on your part.

NOTE: rec.food.preserving will always have the most current or revised version -as will rtfm. [ see below ]

Easiest way to get the FAQ on browser equiped systems:


or plug the following URL into your browser - select the lastest version and part(s) that you want. The text will appear in your browser. Do a "-save as" giving the file an extension of TXT. The format is then viewable in Notepad, Wordpad and the like.


This FAQ is also available in six parts (currently it is six) via anonymous ftp from: rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/rec/food/preserving/ You will need a text viewer like List.com on non-unix systems for viewing the files downloaded.

Part I: Intro

-0.0 Introduction: I have a refrigerator and live near 5 supermarkets. Why bother to preserve food?

Part II: Preserving - where do I begin?

-1.0 Preserving - where do I begin?
-1.1.1 What do I really need to know about canning?
-1.1.2 What about air in jars when canning?
- How can I test a dial gauge?
-1.1.2 I made/got some home-preserved foods as a gift. How do I check them for safety?
-1.1.3 Is home canning safe?
-1.1.4 What foods can be home canned, and what foods shouldn't be?
-1.1.5 pH determinations of common foods and condiments.
-1.1.6 What does home canning entail?
-1.1.7 Where do I get the Ball Blue Book? And the USDA Canning Guide?
-1.1.8 What if my recipe doesn't have processing instructions?
-1.1.9 How can I find out my elevation so I can alter my processing times?
-1.2.2 Sweet Spreads 101, from Barb Schaller
-1.2.3. "Scientific" low sugar Jams
-1.2.4 Fruit butters in general, and apple butter in particular..
-1.2.5. Conserves
-1.2.6. Fruit preserves
-1.2.7 Marmalade
-1.2.8 Tea Jelly
-1.2.9 Flower jellies
-1.2.10 Canning Cake
-1.2.11 Canned Bread 101
-1.2.11 ABSTRACT
-1.2.11 Materials And Methods
-1.2.11 Baking treatments and storage conditions.
-1.2.11 Microbiological study.
-1.2.11 Bread sampling and testing of samples.
-1.2.11 Results And Discussion
-1.2.11 Microbiological study before storage.
-1.2.11 Microbiological study after storage.
-1.2.11 References
-1.2.11 More on Canned Bread ...
-1.3.1 Why do some recipes call for a little butter/margarine?
-1.3.2 Sugar
-1.3.4 I need some good sources for pectin
-1.3.5 Where can I find me some citric acid?
-1.3.6 Where can I find Clear Gel/Jel A?
-1.3.6 How do I make and use homemade pectin? aka pectin 101
-1.3.7 What can I do with all these peels and cores - the waste?
-1.4.1 Don't you need a lot of stuff?
-1.4.3 What's a preserving pan?
-1.4.4 My grandmother always reused commercial jars and sealed her jars using paraffin. Should I do this too?
-1.4.5 Can I invert my jars instead of using that nasty waterbath thing?
-1.4.6 The dishwasher sterilizes jars, right?
-1.4.7 Can I use unlined copper pots in preserving?
-1.4.8 Can I use a propane "Cajun Cooker" style burner for canning?
-1.5.1 What about zinc rings, rubber sealed jars, and other great, but antique, canning equipment?
-1.5.2 Ball or Kerr?
-1.5.3 Rings on the jar, or off?
-1.5.4 What if I don't hear a pop from my jars?
-1.5.5 I'm really cheap. How can I reuse my canning lids?
-1.5.6 How do I use a pressure canner safely and effectively?
-1.5.7 I'd like some sources for non-standard size jars, decorative bottles, unusual size rings, and other items that I just can't find in the usual places.
-1.5.8 Pump N Seal, Has anyone used these?
-1.6.1 My jars refuse to seal! Some of my preserved food is turning colors! What is happening?
-1.6.1 1. Jars do not seal
-1.6.1 2. Food spoils
-1.6.1 3. Food loses liquid during processing
-1.6.1 4. Food turns dark (not spoiled)
-1.6.1 5. Fruit or tomatoes float or separate from the liquid
-1.6.1 Problems In Home-Canned Fruits
-1.6.1 Color Changes In Home-Canned Foods
-1.6.2 My jams and jellies didn't set. How can I reprocess them?
-1.6.3 Anybody have a way to loosen up stiff jelly?

Part III: Freezing

-2.1.1 What do I really need to know about freezing?
- - Tips on how to choose a freezer
-2.1.2 So what foods can be frozen well?
-2.1.3 What's this blanching stuff, anyway?
-2.1.4 How do I freeze (your item here), and how long can I reasonably expect it to keep?
-2.1.4 Combination Dishes - General Directions
-2.1.4 Cooked Meat And Vegetables
-2.1.4 Baked Goods - General Directions
-2.1.4 Appetizers
-2.1.5 Specifics about freezing meats, especially wild game.
-2.1.6 I'm looking for an appliance to vacuum seal food. Any recommendations?
- Vac sealing flour
-2.1.7 Now that we found out that a seal-a-meal is worth having...where in the world do you find supplies?
-2.1.8 How would I go about preserving baked goods (cookies, pastries...) from both going bad and breaking up into crumbs?
-2.1.9 Mushroom duxelles. What's the best way to preserve mushrooms?
-2.1.10 Is there any way to freeze cheese so it does not become "crumbly?"

Part IV: Dehydration

-3.1 Dehydration 101
-3.1.1 Dehydration 101: A Basic Look at Dehydration
-3.1.2 Dehydration 101: History
-3.1.3 Dehydration 101: Four Phases Of Hot Air Dehydration
-3.1.4 Dehydration 101: Definitions
-3.1.1 How can I do jerky in wet zones?
-3.1.2 What results may I achieve with a SnackMaster?
-3.2.1 What do I really need to know about dehydrating food?
-2.2.2 What foods dehydrate well?
-3.2.3 Dehydrating Specific Items
-3.2.4 Dehydrating Pistachio Nut ( and other seeds)
-3.2.5 Dehydrating Sundried Tomato
-3.2.6 Dehydrating Dried Cranberries
-3.2.6 Dehydrating Fruit leathers.
-3.2.7 Dehydrating Jerky
- Dehydrating Beef Sticks
-3.2.8 Dehydrator Tomato Paste
-3.2.9 Parched Corn And Bean
-3.2.10 Dried Chile Peppers.
-3.2.11 Dried Tofu
-3.3.1 What do I really need to know about dehydrating food?
- What dehydrator features should I look for?
-3.3.2 Specific Dehydrator Brands
-3.3.3 I have heard you can make a dehydrator yourself. Got any info?

Part V: Pickling

-4.1.1 What do I really need to know about pickling?
-4.1.2 What pickle styles are there?
-4.1.3 What is the process for making dill pickles?
-4.1.4 What makes pickles kosher?
-4.2.1 What does it take to make pickles? Do you need special equipment?
-4.2.2 What's a non-reactive container?
-4.2.3 Where can I find pickle crocks?
-4.3.1 I followed this pickle recipe, but they don't look like they do in the store. What happened? Can I still eat them?
-4.3.2 Pickles in the NW
-4.4.1. Recipe: Transylvanian Salt-Pickle Veggies
-4.4.2. Middle Eastern Mixed Pickles
-4.4.3. Polish Brine-Cured Dill Pickles
-4.4.4 3-Day Lime Pickle
-4.4.5. A real New York deli Pickle?
-4.4.6. Kimchee
-4.4.6 Kim Chi
-4.4.6 Whole Cabbage Kimchi (known for winter kimchi)
-4.4.7. Pickled Ginger Slices.
-4.4.8. Zucchini Recipes, Because You Can'T Grow Just One!
-4.4.8. Pickled Bread-and-Butter Zucchini
-4.4.9. And A Recipe For Another Prolific Fruit, Green Tomatoes
-4.4.10. Green Tomatoes Rovia
-4.4.11. Pickled Garlic.
-4.5.1 Salsa Tips

Part VI: Curing with Salt or Lye

-5.1 What do I really need to know about curing foods, and what makes this different from pickling?
-5.1.1 Why do I have to cure olives?

Part VII: Smoking

-6.1 What do I really need to know about smoking food?
-6.1.1 Where can I get the stuff ( like saltpeter ) used for curing?
-6.2 Meat Curing And Smoking
-6.2.1 Why is meat cured?
-6.2.3 What is osmosis?
-6.2.4 What is meant by "the danger zone"?
-6.2.5 What other factors affect the growth of bacteria?
-6.2.6 What is botulism?
-6.2.7 What are the commonly used curing compounds?
-6.2.8 Where can these compounds be obtained?
-6.2.9 What is spray pumping?
-6.2.10 What's trichinosis?
-6.2.11 If my cured pork doesn't reach a safe temperature, what about trichinosis?
-6.2.12 What about dry-curing sausages and meats?
-6.2.13 What is the difference between smoke cooking and curing?
-6.2.14 What are the proper temperatures for smoke cooking meat?
-6.2.15 How important is temperature control during smoke curing?
-6.2.16 Is closing down the air inlet dampers a good way to keep the temperature down?
-6.2.17 What are the various woods used for smoking?
-6.2.18 What is the bonafide official way to tell that beef jerky is done curing?
-6.2.19 What temperature is right for smoking ( fowl) turkey?
-6.2.20 Freezing cured ham, smoked or preserved meat is salty after a month. What can I do?
-6.3.1 Can I make a Smithfield Ham at Home?
-6.3.2 How do I make my own bacon at home?
-6.3.3 How do I make my own corned beef?
-6.3.4 What is pastrami and how do I make my own?
-6.3.5 How do I make beef jerky?
-6.4.1 Other Sources (besides this FAQ) for info on meat Curing and Smoking
-6.4.2 I bagged my deer. Now what do I do?
-6.4.3 Virginia Ham
-6.4.4 Sausage
-6.4.5 Dry-Curing Sausage Chemistry
-6.4.6 Salami
-6.4.7. Where Do I Find Kosher Sausage Casings?
-6.4.8 Pickled Beef
-6.4.8 Sources For Wood Chips For Smoking.
-6.5.2 How do I cure olives?
-6.5.3 Salt cured (pickled/preserved) lemons and limes. Used in Middle Eastern/ Moroccan cookery.
-6.6.2 A friend of mine is looking for the recipe for "preserved eggs" or "1,000 year old eggs".
-6.6.3 After some discussion on posole (aka, hominy) on the Chile-Heads list, someone in France asked how you make hominy, since it isn't really available there.
-6.6.5 Does anyone know how to make candied orange rind, grapefruit rind or pineapple, etc?
-6.6.6 Candying fruits
-6.6.7 Candying flowers
-6.6.9 How do I smoke chiles?
-6.7 What do I need to know about smoking a fish?
-6.7.1 Smoked salmon
-6.7.2 Lox, Nova Lox, and Gravlax

Part VIII: Potting

-7.1 What is potting anyway?
-7.2 How do I render lard? Which pieces of pork fat are used?
-7.3 Mini FAQ on Meat Potting
-7.4 This is how we used to do it...
-7.5 How long can pork be preserved in this way?
-7.6 How much did you have to cook it to be sure it was cooked enough?
-7.7 What other meats can be preserved in this way?
-7.8 Could meat be salt cured and then potted?
-7.9 What can I do to enhance my chances of potting safely?
-7.10 Should I give this a try to gain experience in this type of meat preserving?
-7.11 A last comment about "scraping the bottom of the barrel"

Part IX: Making Vinegar and Flavoured Oils

-8.1 How do I make vinegar from wine?
-8.1.2 So, Does Anyone Know How Sour Grapes Are Converted To Verjuice?
-8.1.3 How do I make flavored vinegars?
-8.1.4 How do I make flavored oils?
-8.1.5 Garlic (chiles, herbs, dried tomatoes, etc.) in oil. How safe is it? How can I make them safely?
- Fruit Cordials
- Fruit Cordial Recipes
-8.1.6 Brandied Fruit, i.e. Tutti-Frutti.
-8.1.7 Vanilla Extract

Part X: Root Cellaring and Storage of Staples

-9.1 What do I really need to know about root cellaring?
-9.1.1 How long to do stored items last?
-9.1.3 Storage of grains and flours: The dry ice method....
-9.1.4 The nitrogen gas method for storage of grains and flours
-9.1.5 Storing Garlic.

Part XI: Preserving Dairy Products

-10.1 Looking for rennet for a cheese recipe?
-10.2 Butter
-10.3 Devonshire Clotted Cream
-10.4 Stirred Curd-Cheddar Recipe

Part XII: Specific Equipment Questions

-11.1.1 I see different sized canners for sale. Why should I get a big one?
-11.1.2 What do I need to know about a waterbath canner?
- Can I use a pressure canner as a waterbath canner?
- Can I use a device sold as a steam canner in food processing?
-11.1.3 What do I need to know about gauges and weights?
-11.1.4 I got this pressure canner (not cooker!) for a gift. How do I take care of it?
-11.1.5 Weight "jiggle" Questions
-11.1.6 Cleaning My Pressure Canner
-11.1.7 Where can I find canning equipment parts?
-11.1.8 What about zinc rings, rubber sealed jars, and other antique (Out-dated or superceded are other terms) canning equipment?
-11.1.9. 1/2 gallon canning jars. How to find, and what to do with them?
-11.2 Dehydrators
-11.2.1 Where can I find suppliers of premade dehydrators?
-11.2.2 Where can I find plans for homemade dehydrators?
-11.3.1 Where can I find plans for a homemade smoker?
-11.3.2 How do I use my Little Chief?]

Part XIII: Tips N Tricks

-12.1 The Fruit Fly Trap From: Diana Hamilton
-12.1.1 Wax paper weight From: Kate Gregory
-12.2.1 Chop Citrus Peels For Marmalade
-12.2.2 Using Ascorbic Acid
-12.3.2 A Jelly Bag For Emergencies
-12.3.3 How To Reach The Jelling Stage/The Fork Test
-12.2.4 Keeping Powdered Pectin From Lumping Up
-12.3.5 Canner Rack - Rack For Under Jars From: Barb Schaller Canning Rack
-12.4.1 Tips and Tricks for Drying Foods in Oven
-12.4.2 Mini-dehydrator
-12.4.3 Getting Fruit Leather Off Of The Dehydrator Tray
-12.4.4 Sauerkraut Fermenters
-12.4.5 The Easy Way To Wash Cukes
-12.4.6 Skimming Brine
-12.4.7 Keeping Pickled Peppers Crisp
-12.5.1 Food-Grade Plastics
-12.5.2 How Can I Make Kimchee Without Compliants?
-12.6.1 SourceS Of Wood Chips
-12.6.2 Beef Stick Tips
-12.7.1 Lime Pickles
-12.7.2 Garlic Turns Blue
-12.7.3 Garlic In Oil
-12.7.4 Dehydrating Con-On-The Cob

Part XIV: Spoilage, Especially Botulism

-13.1 Home Canned Food Spoilage -- What Went Wrong?
-13.1 Unsealed Jars And Spoiled Food -- What To Do?
-13.1 Alternate Detoxification Methods:
-13.1.2 Botulism. What is it?
-13.1.3 I'm confused about when the toxin is produced. Tell me more about the bacterium.
-13.3.4 How can I be absolutely, positively sure that those spores are killed?
-13.1.5 I don't feel so good. What do I have/had/will have?
-13.1.6 Aflatoxin. What Is It?

Part XV: Recipe Caveats and Troubleshooting

-14.1.1 I just got a recipe from rec.food.preserving that I'd like to try. Is it safe to make?
-14.1.2 Most of the recipe measurements posted here are not metric. Can you help me?
-14.1.3 Help! What's a peck? Uncommon English measurements.
-14.1.4 Finding Your Elevation So You Can Alter Your Canning Recipes.
-14.1.5 I Got Some Recipes From My Grandparents. Are They Safe? How Can I Make Them Safe?
-14.1.5 Factors Influencing Safety
-14.1.5 Tomato Products
-14.1.5 Fruits and Vegetables
-14.1.5 Jar Sizes
- Sweet Fruit Spreads
- Pickled Vegetable Or Fruit:
- Tomato-Vegetable Blend:
- Fruit Or Vegetable
- Wrong Jar Or Jar Size:
-14.1.5 How To Evaluate Recipes - Procedures
-14.1.5 How To Evaluate Recipes 1. Pepper relish
-14.1.5 How To Evaluate Recipes 2. Picnic Relish
-14.1.5 How To Evaluate Recipes 3. Chili Sauce I
-14.1.5 How To Evaluate Recipes 4. Chili Sauce II
-14.1.5 How To Evaluate Recipes 5. Shirley's Sweet-Sour Sauce
-14.1.5 Analysis Of The Recipes: 1. Pepper Relish
-14.1.5 Analysis Of The Recipes: 2. Picnic relish
-14.1.5 Analysis Of The Recipes: 3. Chili Sauce I
-14.1.5 Analysis Of The Recipes: 4. Chili Sauce II
-14.1.5 Analysis Of The Recipes: V. Shirley's Sweet-Sour Sauce

Part XVI: Other Sources

-15.1.1 This FAQ does not tell me what I need to know!
-15.1.2 General Reference Books
-15.1.3 Specific Techniques and Interests
-15.1.4 Books and Guides to Equipment
-15.1.5 Food Preserving books of Historic Interest
-15.1.6 Pamphlets
-15.1.7 Magazines
-15.1.8 Phone - voice

Part XVII: Internet Sites

-16. Internet

Part XVIII: Misc

-17.0 BitBucket of valuable information unclassified - yet.

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