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2.2.4. When did country X change from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar?




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This article is from the Calendars FAQ, by Claus Tondering claus@tondering.dk with numerous contributions by others.

2.2.4. When did country X change from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar?

The papal bull of February 1582 decreed that 10 days should be dropped
from October 1582 so that 15 October should follow immediately after
4 October, and from then on the reformed calendar should be used.

This was observed in Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain. Other Catholic
countries followed shortly after, but Protestant countries were
reluctant to change, and the Greek orthodox countries didn't change
until the start of the 1900s.

Changes in the 1500s required 10 days to be dropped.
Changes in the 1600s required 10 days to be dropped.
Changes in the 1700s required 11 days to be dropped.
Changes in the 1800s required 12 days to be dropped.
Changes in the 1900s required 13 days to be dropped.

(Exercise for the reader: Why is the error in the 1600s the same as
in the 1500s.)

The following list contains the dates for changes in a number of
countries. It is very strange that in many cases there seems to be
some doubt among authorities about what the correct days are.
Different sources give very different dates in some cases. The list
below does not include all the different opinions about when the
change took place.

Albania: December 1912

Austria: Different regions on different dates
Brixen, Salzburg and Tyrol:
5 Oct 1583 was followed by 16 Oct 1583
Carinthia and Styria:
14 Dec 1583 was followed by 25 Dec 1583
See also Czechoslovakia and Hungary

Belgium: See the Netherlands

Bulgaria: 31 Mar 1916 was followed by 14 Apr 1916

Canada: Different areas changed at different times.
Newfoundland and Hudson Bay coast:
2 Sep 1752 was followed by 14 Sep 1752
Mainland Nova Scotia:
Gregorian 1605 - 13 Oct 1710
Julian 2 Oct 1710 - 2 Sep 1752
Gregorian since 14 Sep 1752
Rest of Canada:
Gregorian from first European settlement

China: The Gregorian calendar replaced the Chinese calendar
in 1912, but the Gregorian calendar was not used
throughout the country until the communist revolution
of 1949.

Czechoslovakia (i.e. Bohemia and Moravia):
6 Jan 1584 was followed by 17 Jan 1584

Denmark (including Norway):
18 Feb 1700 was followed by 1 Mar 1700

Egypt: 1875

Estonia: 31 Jan 1918 was followed by 14 Feb 1918

Finland: Then part of Sweden. (Note, however, that Finland later
became part of Russia, which then still used the
Julian calendar. The Gregorian calendar remained
official in Finland, but some use of the Julian
calendar was made.)

France: 9 Dec 1582 was followed by 20 Dec 1582
Alsace: 5 Feb 1682 was followed by 16 Feb 1682
Lorraine: 16 Feb 1760 was followed by 28 Feb 1760
Strasbourg: February 1682

Germany: Different states on different dates:
Catholic states on various dates in 1583-1585
Prussia: 22 Aug 1610 was followed by 2 Sep 1610
Protestant states: 18 Feb 1700 was followed by 1 Mar 1700
(Many local variations)

Great Britain and Dominions:
2 Sep 1752 was followed by 14 Sep 1752

Greece: [9 Mar 1924 was followed by 23 Mar 1924
(Some sources say 1916 and 1920)]

Hungary: 21 Oct 1587 was followed by 1 Nov 1587

Ireland: See Great Britain

Italy: 4 Oct 1582 was followed by 15 Oct 1582

Japan: The Gregorian calendar was introduced to supplement the
traditional Japanese calendar on 1 Jan 1873.

Latvia: During German occupation 1915 to 1918

Lithuania: 1915

Luxemburg: 14 Dec 1582 was followed by 25 Dec 1582

Netherlands (including Belgium):
Zeeland, Brabrant, and the "Staten Generaal":
14 Dec 1582 was followed by 25 Dec 1582
Holland:
1 Jan 1583 was followed by 12 Jan 1583
Limburg and the southern provinces (currently Belgium):
20 Dec 1582 was followed by 31 Dec 1582
or
21 Dec 1582 was followed by 1 Jan 1583
Groningen:
10 Feb 1583 was followed by 21 Feb 1583
Went back to Julian in the summer of 1594
31 Dec 1700 was followed by 12 Jan 1701
Gelderland:
30 Jun 1700 was followed by 12 Jul 1700
Utrecht and Overijssel:
30 Nov 1700 was followed by 12 Dec 1700
Friesland:
31 Dec 1700 was followed by 12 Jan 1701
Drenthe:
30 Apr 1701 was followed by 12 May 1701

Norway: Then part of Denmark.

Poland: 4 Oct 1582 was followed by 15 Oct 1582

Portugal: 4 Oct 1582 was followed by 15 Oct 1582

Romania: 31 Mar 1919 was followed by 14 Apr 1919
[The Greek Orthodox parts of the country may have
changed later.]

Russia: 31 Jan 1918 was followed by 14 Feb 1918
[In the eastern parts of the country the change may
not have occurred until 1920.]

Scotland: Much confusion exists regarding Scotland's change. Different
authorities disagree about whether Scotland changed together
with the rest of Great Britain, or if they had changed
earlier.

Spain: 4 Oct 1582 was followed by 15 Oct 1582

Sweden (including Finland):
17 Feb 1753 was followed by 1 Mar 1753 (see note below)

Switzerland:
Catholic cantons: 1583, 1584 or 1597
Protestant cantons:
31 Dec 1700 was followed by 12 Jan 1701
(Many local variations)

Turkey: Gregorian calendar introduced 1 Jan 1927

United States: Different areas changed at different times.
Along the Eastern seaboard: With Great Britain in 1752.
Mississippi valley: With France in 1582.
Texas, Florida, California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico:
With Spain in 1582
Washington, Oregon: With Britain in 1752.
Alaska: October 1867 when Alaska became part of the USA.

Wales: See Great Britain

Yugoslavia: 1919

Sweden has a curious history. Sweden decided to make a gradual change
from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar. By dropping every leap year
from 1700 through 1740 the eleven superfluous days would be omitted
and from 1 Mar 1740 they would be in sync with the Gregorian
calendar. (But in the meantime they would be in sync with nobody!)

So 1700 (which should have been a leap year in the Julian calendar)
was not a leap year in Sweden. However, by mistake 1704 and 1708
became leap years. This left Sweden out of synchronisation with both
the Julian and the Gregorian world, so they decided to go *back* to
the Julian calendar. In order to do this, they inserted an extra day
in 1712, making that year a double leap year! So in 1712, February had
30 days in Sweden.

Later, in 1753, Sweden changed to the Gregorian calendar by dropping 11
days like everyone else.

 

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