lotus

previous page: 14. Windows 3.1 and Windows 95: How can i type and display Esperanto's accented characters?
  
page up: Esperanto FAQ
  
next page: 14. TeX and LaTeX: How can i type and display Esperanto's accented characters?

14. Unix: How can i type and display Esperanto's accented characters?




Description

This article is from the Esperanto FAQ, by Mike Urban urban@netcom.com and Yves Bellefeuille yan@storm.ca with numerous contributions by others.

14. Unix: How can i type and display Esperanto's accented characters?

(Thanks to Konrad Hinsen for the following information.)

It is sometimes possible to install a font with Esperanto's accented
characters on a Unix system not using the X Window System, but the
procedure to do so is different for each Unix system and possibly for
each terminal type. Look in your documentation, or ask your system
administrator. In the case of Linux, there is a fairly standardized
procedure if you are working on an EGA/VGA screen. Check the
documentation of the command setfont, which is part of most Linux
distributions.

If you are using a Unix system with X11 (by far the most popular
windowing system for Unix), you must install a text font with ISO 8859-3
encoding (also known as "Latin-3"). Several such fonts are listed at
http://www.esperanto.be/tiparoj.html
A good font set is
ftp://ftp.stack.nl/pub/esperanto/fonts.dir/
which contains ISO 8859-3 versions of the Adobe fonts Courier, Times,
Helvetica, and New Century Schoolbook in several sizes. It also contains
installation instructions.

Once you have installed an appropriate font, you must tell your programs
to use it. Most X11 programs, e.g. xterm or emacs, accept the option
"-fn fontname" to specify the font to be used. X11 font names can be
rather long and complicated; use the program "xfontsel" to select a font
and obtain its full name. Note that some older Unix programs are not
"8-bit clean", which means that they do not recognize characters with
codes over 128 as letters. Such programs cannot be made to work with ISO
8859-3 fonts, but neither with the common ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) fonts
used for Western European languages.

To write in Esperanto, you must also be able to type accented
characters. Unfortunately, this is a much more difficult problem. The
X11 input system is, well, rather messy, and details differ between
versions and vendors. Another problem is that different keyboards are
used in different countries, and that you probably want to keep all the
characters on your keyboard accessible. So there are two problems:
deciding how you want to type the additional characters, and persuading
X11 to arrange the keyboard correctly.

Basically, the options for typing Esperanto characters are:

1) Via some unused keys or key combinations. Keys that are
often unused are the function keys or the shifted numeric keypad
keys. Assigning the Esperanto characters to such unused keys is
rather straightforward, and will be explained below.

2) Via the standard keys plus a modifier. Modifiers are keys such
as Shift, Control, Meta, or Alt. The Shift combinations are usually
all taken, and Control, Meta and Alt are used by many programs for
command entry, so in most cases this option is difficult to realize.

3) Via the compose key. X11 supports the entry of accented characters
via a special "compose" key. Unfortunately, many programs don't work
correctly with the compose key, and most X11 implementations support
it only for the ISO 8859-1 character set. You may be able to work
around these obstacles, but no general recommendations can be given.

The first option is implemented as follows:

1) Create a file called .xmodmaprc in your home directory, containing
the following lines:

== File .xmodmaprc ====================================================
! Define Esperanto accented characters on shifted function keys

! ccircumflex
keysym F1 = F1 ae
! Ccircumflex
keysym F2 = F2 AE
! gcircumflex
keysym F3 = F3 oslash
! Gcircumflex
keysym F4 = F4 Ooblique
! hcircumflex
keysym F5 = F5 paragraph
! Hcircumflex
keysym F6 = F6 brokenbar
! jcircumflex
keysym F7 = F7 onequarter
! Jcircumflex
keysym F8 = F8 notsign
! scircumflex
keysym F9 = F9 thorn
! Scircumflex
keysym F10 = F10 THORN
! ubreve
keysym F11 = F11 yacute
! Ubreve
keysym F12 = F12 Yacute
== End of .xmodmaprc ==================================================

2) Execute the command
xmodmap $HOME/.xmodmaprc
To have this command executed automatically, you must put it into a
special file, which might be called .xinitrc, .xsession or something
else; you will have to ask your system administrator for assistance.

The keyboard definition shown above will put the 12 special Esperanto
characters on the 12 function keys when used together with the Shift
key.

   ***
   ***   I'd like to add information on other operating systems,
   ***   especially OS/2 and Windows NT. Please contact me if you wish
   ***   to help with this.
   ***

 

Continue to:













TOP
previous page: 14. Windows 3.1 and Windows 95: How can i type and display Esperanto's accented characters?
  
page up: Esperanto FAQ
  
next page: 14. TeX and LaTeX: How can i type and display Esperanto's accented characters?