This article is from the Esperanto FAQ, by Mike Urban email@example.com and Yves Bellefeuille firstname.lastname@example.org with numerous contributions by others.
(Thanks to Arnold Victor and Dmitri Horowitz for preparing the following
Fonts with Esperanto's accented characters are available for use under
Mac OS. Due to the lack of a generally accepted standard encoding,
several encodings are currently in use; however, ISO 8859-3 (also called
"Latin-3") is becoming more and more common. Apple has proposed a
different standard encoding called "MacEsperanto".
To type Esperanto's accented characters conveniently, use an Esperanto
keyboard layout. Each encoding corresponds to a particular keyboard
layout; thus, if you are using a Latin-3 font, you must also use the
Latin-3 keyboard layout.
Fonts are installed as follows:
- Quit all applications first.
- Put the Esperanto font files in the Fonts folder in the System Folder.
(Or drag-drop the font file on the System Folder icon and it will
automatically be placed in the right folder.)
Keyboard layouts are installed as follows:
- Quit all applications first.
- Put the keyboard layout file in the System suitcase in the System
Folder. (Or drag-drop the keyboard layout file on the System Folder
icon; when the dialog appears, confirm that you want the file placed in
the right folder.)
To use Esperanto fonts in an application, do the following:
- Use the Keyboard control panel (under Control Panels in the Apple
menu) to select the appropriate keyboard layout. Esperanto keyboard
layouts are usually symbolized by a green star or by the Esperanto flag
(a green flag with a star in the upper left corner).
- Choose an Esperanto font with the same encoding as the keyboard layout
in the application.
With most keyboard layouts, including Latin-3, the accented characters
are typed by pressing the Option key together with the letter to be
accented. For example, Option and lowercase c will type the accented
letter c^, Option and uppercase C will type the accented letter C^, and
so on. With some keyboard layouts, the accented character u^ is placed
You can check the location of the accented characters as follows:
- Make sure the appropriate keyboard layout is selected.
- Open the Key Caps desk accessory in the Apple menu.
- Select an Esperanto font with the same encoding as the keyboard layout
from the Key Caps menu.
- Check the keyboard layout displayed with the Option key, with the
Shift key, and with both the Option and Shift keys pressed.
A keyboard menu will let you switch between keyboard layouts more
conveniently. It appears on the menu bar to the left of the application
menu, which is itself on the outer right. It can be recognized by the
small flag which shows the selected keyboard layout.
With Mac OS version 8, a keyboard menu appears automatically when more
than one keyboard is selected in the Keyboard control panel (under
Control Panels in the Apple menu).
If you are using Mac OS version 7.x, you must install a system extension
to have the keyboard menu. A shareware extension called "Outboard
Keyboard" (5 USD) can be downloaded as part of the package Carpetbag
Install it as follows:
- Put the extension in the Extensions folder in the System Folder. (Or
drag-drop the keyboard layout file on the System Folder icon; when the
dialog appears, confirm that you want the file placed in the right
- Restart the computer.
Esperanto fonts with matching keyboard layouts can be downloaded from
The following resources are useful when using Esperanto in Internet
- Plug-in tables for the popular mailing program Eudora which allow you
to send and receive messages in MacEsperanto, Latin-3, and Code Page
853. Bitmap fonts and a keyboard layout are included. See
- A detailed description of how to convert Unicode TrueType fonts from
MS-Windows to MacEsperanto. The fonts are freely available from