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4. Food Related Terms Definitions H-H




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This article is from the Food Science FAQ, bypking123@sympatico.ca (Paul E. J. King) with numerous contributions by others.

4. Food Related Terms Definitions H-H

HACCP

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a preventive
system of food control. It involves

1. Hazard analysis - examining and analysing every stage of
a food-related operation to identify and assess hazards
(q.v., below);
2. determining the 'critical control points' (q.v., above) at
which action is required to control the identified hazards;
3. establishing the critical limits that must be met at each
critical control point;
4. establishing monitoring procedures;
5. establishing corrective procedures when a deviation is
identified by monitoring;
6. establishing verification procedures to demostrate that it
is working correctly.
7. Establishing record-keeping and documentation.

A few authoritative sources of information are:

* "HACCP Systems and Guidelines" , CODEX Alimentarius, 1997.
* Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles and
Application Guidelines, (US) National Advisory Committee on
Microbiological Safety of Foods, 14 August 1997
http://www.fst.vt.edu/haccp97/
* Food Safety and Inspection Service, US Department of
Agriculture, Pathogen Reduction/HACCP & HACCP Implementation
http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OA/haccp/imphaccp.htm
* Canadian Food Inspection Agency 's Food Safety Enhancement
Program Web page of links at
http://www.cfia-acia.agr.ca/english/ppc/haccp/haccp.html
* A Simple Guide to Understanding and Applying the Hazard
Analysis Critical Control Point Concept. ILSI Europe, 1997.
http://www.ilsi.org/pubs/ilsihace.pdf

HAZOP

Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOP) is a systematic structured
approach to questioning the sequential stages of a proposed operation in
order to optimise the efficiency and the management of risk. Thus, the
application of HAZOP to the design of a proposed food-related operation,
should result in a system in which as many critical control points as
possible have been eliminated, making the subsequent application of
HACCP during subsequent operations much easier to carry out.

Hazard

Any intrinsic property of a system, operation, material or
situation that could, in certain circumstances, lead to an adverse
consequence. In food terms, this particularly refers to an adverse
consequence (health risk or loss by spoilage) to the consumer.

Health food

This is essentially a marketing term, the meaning of which has
never been clear. There is no legal basis and no evident objective
justification for the term, which implies a superiority over foods not
so described. So-called health foods fall into four main categories,
namely

1) products in respect of which there is adequate scientific
substantiation for the specific permissible nutrition and/or health
claims made, and which are labelled in accordance with relevant
legislation;

2) those in respect of which there is 'folklore' and some
scientific evidence for the claims, but falling short of substantiation;

3) those making claims for which there is little or no scientific
evidence;

4) other products that are frequently sold in health food shops
e.g. 'wholefoods' (q.v.).

It should be noted that some products in categories 2 and 3 have
given rise to concerns about their safety, which, in certain cases, have
led to prohibition.

Hermetically sealed container

Strictly, an 'hermetically sealed container' is one that is sealed
so as to be air-tight. Commercially sterile food products may be packed
in non-metallic containers that are not completely air-tight. In the
latter context, an 'hermetically sealed container' has been defined as
one that is designed and intended to be secure against entry of
microorganisms.

High in .....

Complying either with a declared or, where existing, a
legally-specified minimum, or a legally-specified percentage increase
compared with a product not making a "high in" claim for the parameters
involved."

Higher in (increased) .....

Complying either with a declared or, where existing, a
legally-specified percentage increase compared with a product not making
such a claim, for the parameter involved.

Home made

This term has no defined meaning but it implies that a food has
been prepared on a small scale, either on domestic premises or premises
not associated with large scale manufacture.

 

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