This article is from the Food Science FAQ, firstname.lastname@example.org (Paul E. J. King) with numerous contributions by others.
When used as a descriptive term for food, refers exclusively to
milk and milk products. In the EU its use is legally governed by
Council Regulation 1898/87 on the Protection of Designations used in
the marketing of Milk and Milk Products, as supplemented by
Commission Decision 888/566/EEC. Help in interpreting some of these
provisions was given by a MAFF Guidance Note (November 1989). The
Council Regulation was subsequently implemented by the UK in the Milk
and Milk Products (Protection of Designations) Regulations 1990.
A description that may be applied to a food that is free from
milk products and also from milk derivatives such as lactose,
caseinate and whey powder.
Food or food products from which all but a small percentage of
the water has been removed under controlled conditions.
See Functional Foods and Marketing Terms.
The application of effective chemical or physical agents or
processes to a cleaned surface or to a water supply to reduce the
number of microorganisms to a level consistent with good hygiene
In scientific terms, dietary fibre is a mixture of components
derived from plant cell wall material and non-structural
polysaccharides, as well as non-starch polysaccharides added to
foods. It includes non-digestible polysaccharides such as cellulose,
hemicelluloses, gums, pectins, mucilages and lignin. From a nutrition
point of view, some authorities also include 'resistant starch' (i.e.
starch that is resistant to enzymic degradation, usually as a result
Currently, there is no universally accepted method for
determination of dietary fibre. For some years the UK Ministry of
Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) has adopted the definition,
for the purposes of label declaration, that dietary fibre is
non-starch polysaccharides as determined by the Englyst method; but
in Guidelines issued in March 1994, MAFF indicated that analysts may
use any other methods which give similar results. The Englyst method
excludes resistant starch. Most EU countries and the USA use the AOAC
Prosky method. This method includes resistant starch and the value
for dietary fibre obtained is therefore invariably higher than that
by the Englyst method. It should be noted, however, that no
recognised analytical method fully corresponds to biological
A term descriptive of a food or food material consisting of a
stable blend of two or more otherwise immiscible liquids, usually an
oil and an aqueous phase, achieved by appropriate physical means and
usually with the incorporation of emulsifying and stabilising agents.
See "fortified foods"