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B1) What are the major events of Tibetan history (timeline)?


This article is from the Tibet FAQ, by Peter Kauffner Peter.Kauffner@bearsden.org and Nima Dorje tibet@acs.ucalgary.ca.

B1) What are the major events of Tibetan history (timeline)?

Year Description of Event

416 BC Nyatri Tsenpo founds a dynasty in Yarlung valley, according to legend
602 AD Tibet is unified under King Namri Songtsen of the Yarlung dynasty
641 King Songtsen Gampo marries Princess Wencheng of China, his 2nd wife
670 Tibet conquers Amdo, Tarim Basin; prolonged warfare with China begins
747 King Trisong Detsen invites Padmasambhava, yogin of Swat, to Tibet
763 Tibet captures Changan, capital of Tang China; tribute paid to Tibet
779 Samye, Tibet's 1st monastery, built by Trisong Detsen & Padmasambhava
792 Exponents of Indian Buddhism prevail in debate with Chinese at Samye
821 Tibet signs its last peace treaty with Tang China: "Tibetans shall
be happy in Tibet and Chinese shall be happy in China." [Walt1]
842 King Langdarma murdered by a monk; Tibet splits into several states
1040 Birth of Milarepa, 2nd hierarch of Kagyupa order and a renown poet
1073 Founding of Sakya, the first monastery of the Sakyapa monastic order
1206 An assembly names Genghis Khan first ruler of a unified Mongol nation
1227 Mongols destroy Xixia, a Tibetan-speaking kingdom of northwest China
1247 Sakya Pandita submits to Godan Khan; beginning of the first priest/
patron relationship between a Tibetan lama and a Mongol khan
1261 Tibet is reunited with Sakya Pandita, Grand Lama of Sakya, as king
1279 Final defeat of Song by Mongols; Mongol conquest of China complete
1350 Changchub Gyaltsen defeats Sakya and founds the secular Sitya dynasty
1368 China regains its independence from the Mongols under Ming dynasty
1409 Ganden, 1st Gelugpa monastery, built by monastic reformer Tsongkhapa
1435-81 In prolonged warfare, Karmapa supporters gain control of Sitya court
1578 Gelugpa leader gets the title of Dalai ("Ocean") from Altan Khan
1635 Sitya dynasty is overthrown by the ruler of Tibet's Tsang province
1640 Gushri Khan, leader of Khoshut Mongols, invades and conquers Tibet
1642 Gushri Khan enthrones the 5th Dalai Lama as temporal ruler of Tibet
1644 Manchu overthrow Ming, conquer China, and establish the Qing dynasty
1653 "Great Fifth" Dalai Lama meets Qing Emperor Shunzhi near Beijing
1682 Fifth Dalai Lama dies; regent conceals death for the next 14 years
1716-21 Italian Jesuit priest Ippolito Desideri studies and teaches in Lhasa
1717 Dzungar Mongols invade Tibet and sack Lhasa; 5th DL's tomb looted
1720 Dzungars driven out; Qing forces install Kesang Gyatso as the 7th DL
1721 The position of Amban is created by a 13-point Qing decree on Tibet
1724 A Chinese territorial government is created for Qinghai (Amdo)
1750 Ambans murder regent; rioters kill Ambans; Qing troops sent to Tibet
1792 Qing troops enter Tibet to drive out Gorkha (Nepalese) invaders
29-point Qing decree prescribes "golden urn" lottery for picking DL
and PL, bans visits by non-Chinese, and increases Ambans' powers
1854-56 Nepal defeats Tibet; peace treaty requires that Tibet pay tribute
1876 China agrees to provide passports for a British mission to Tibet
1885 Tibet turns back British mission, rejects Chinese-granted passports
1893 China and Britain agree to regulations on trade between India & Tibet
1894 Tibetans build a wall north of Dromo to prevent trade with India
The 13th Dalai Lama takes control of the Tibetan government at age 18
1904 British troops under Colonel Younghusband enter Tibet & occupy Lhasa
A treaty signed which required Tibet to pay an indemnity to Britain
1906 The 1904 Anglo-Tibetan treaty is "confirmed" in Anglo-Chinese treaty
1907 "Suzerainty of China over Thibet" recognized in Anglo-Russian treaty
1910-12 Qing troops occupy Tibet, shoot at unarmed crowds on entering Lhasa
1912 Last Qing emperor abdicates; Republic of China claims Mongolia,Tibet
1913 13th Dalai Lama proclaims Tibet a "religious and independent nation"
Mongolia and Tibet recognize each other in a treaty signed in Urga
1914 Britain and Tibet agree to McMahon Line in a treaty signed in Simla
1917-18 Tibet defeats Chinese forces in Kham, recovers Chamdo (lost in 1910)
1921 Britain recognizes Tibet's "autonomy under Chinese suzerainty"
1924 At a KMT congress, Sun Yat-sen calls for "self-determination of all
national minorities in China" within a "united Chinese republic"
1924-25 Pressure from monks causes DL to dismiss his British-trained officers
1928 Chiang Kai-shek defeats northern warlords, reunites China under KMT
1930-33 China captures Derge in Kham in first Sino-Tibetan clash since 1918
1933 Truce ends China/Tibet fighting; the 13th Dalai Lama dies at age 58
1934 Reting Rimpoche named regent; China permitted to open Lhasa mission
1940 The five-year-old Tenzin Gyatso is enthroned as the 14th Dalai Lama
1941 Unable to keep celibacy vow, Reting is replaced as regent by Taktra
1942 U.S. army officer goes to Lhasa to present a letter for DL from FDR
1944 U.S. military aircraft crash lands near Samye; crew escorted to India
1945 Newly opened English-language school is closed after monks protest
1947 ex-Regent Reting attempts to kill Regent Taktra with a package bomb
Reting dies while under house arrest; he was apparently poisoned
British mission in Lhasa is transferred to a newly independent India
1947-49 Tibetan Trade Mission travels to India, China, U.S., and Britain;
mission meets with British Prime Minister Clement R. Attlee
1949 People's Republic of China is proclaimed by Chinese Communist Party
PRC recognizes Mongolia, announces its intention to "liberate" Tibet
1950 Red China invades Tibet; Tibetan army destroyed in battle at Chamdo
1951 17-point agreement between China and Tibet; Chinese occupy Lhasa
1955 Tibetans in Kham and Amdo (Qinghai) begin revolt against Chinese rule
1956 Dalai Lama visits India for 2,500th anniversary of the Buddha's birth
The United States begins to arm the Tibetan resistance via CIA
1959 DL flees to India; 87,000 Tibetans die in anti-Chinese revolt [Walt2]
1960 International Commission of Jurists: "acts of genocide [have] been
committed...to destroy the Tibetans as a religious group." [ICJ1]
1960-62 Tibet experiences its first famine as grain is requisitioned by PLA
1962 China-India War: China advances beyond McMahon Line, then withdraws
1962-75 TAR's peasants are herded into communes by collectivization campaign
1963 DL approves a democratic constitution for the Tibetan exile community
1964 The Panchen Lama is arrested after calling for Tibetan independence
1965 China sets up Tibet Autonomous Region in U-Tsang and western Kham
1966 The United States America recognizes China's sovereignty over Tibet
1966-69 Cultural Revolution: Red Guards vandalize temples, attack "four olds"
1969-71 Tibet is put under PLA military rule in order to suppress Red Guards
1971 The United States cuts off military aid to the Tibetan resistance
1974 Nepal forces the Tibetan resistance to abandon its base in Mustang
Sikkim votes overwhelmingly to join India; Ladakh opened to tourists
1976 The first permanent ethnic Chinese settlers arrive in TAR [Donnet94]
1977 Resistance burns 100 PLA vehicles in last major military operation
1978 Visitors find 8 temples left in TAR, down from 2,700 in 1959 [Far95]
1979 Tibet is opened to non-Chinese tourism for the first time since 1963
1979-80 China allows a series of three delegations from DL to visit Tibet
1980 CCP leader Hu Yaobang visits Lhasa; he promises to "relax" controls
and "restore the Tibetan economy to its pre-1959 level."[Strauss]
"Responsibility system" distributes collectivized land to individuals
1982 Writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn calls CCP regime in Tibet "more brutal
and inhuman than any other communist regime in the world."[Walt3]
1985 Bomb defused in Lhasa during the TAR 20th anniversary celebration
1987 Police fire on a massive pro-independence demonstration in Lhasa
1988 Qiao Shi, politburo member and internal security chief, visits Tibet
and vows to "adopt a policy of merciless repression." [Asia90]
Speaking in Strasbourg, France, the Dalai Lama elaborates on his 1987
"five point" proposal for Tibetan self-government within China.
1989 Police kill 80-150 in Lhasa's bloodiest riots in 30 years[Schwartz94]
Martial law imposed in Lhasa; Dalai Lama receives Nobel Peace Prize
1990 China lifts martial law in Lhasa 13 months after imposing it
The Voice of America initiates a Tibetan-language broadcast service
1992 Chen Kuiyuan named CCP leader for Tibet, calls for a purge of those
who "act as internal agents of the Dalai Lama clique."[Kristof93]
Over 30,000 visitors arrive in TAR's "Golden Year of Tibetan Tourism"
1991 1,000 Tibetan refugees, chosen by lottery, are admitted to the U.S.
1993 Residents of Lhasa protest for independence, against inflation and
the charging of fees for formally free medical services [Kaye93]
1994 Potala, former residence of the DL, is restored at a cost of $9 mln.
1995 A report on Chinese human rights violations, including one case where
a Tibetan nun was beaten to death, is narrowly rejected by the UN
DL recognizes six-year-old Gedhun Choekyi Nyima as 11th Panchen Lama
China denounces the Dalai Lama's choice of Panchen Lama as a "fraud,"
selects rival candidate Gyaincain Norbu by golden urn process
Tibet's worst snowstorm in a century leaves more than 50 dead
1996 Earthquake in Lijang rates 7.0 on the Richter scale and kills 200
The U.S.-funded Radio Free Asia begins broadcasting on shortwave
Bomb explodes near government offices in Lhasa on Christmas day;
a 1 million yuan ($120,000) reward is offered to solve crime
DL takes steps to limit Shugden worship in Tibetan exile community
1997 Three monks close to DL are murdered; Shugden supporters suspected
Dalai Lama visits Taiwan and meets with ROC President Lee Teng-hui
Several major movies on Tibet, including _Kundun_ are released


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