This article is from the Europe FAQ, by Yves Bellefeuille firstname.lastname@example.org with help from Martin Rich M.G.Rich@city.ac.uk.
Time is calculated relative to "Universal Time" (UT) or "Greenwich Mean
Time" (GMT). If you're in North or South America, you're earlier than
(behind) Universal Time. If you're in most of Europe, Africa, Asia, or
Oceania, you're later than (ahead of) Universal Time.
Here are the time zones for European countries, relative to Universal
Universal Time -3/-2/-1:
Spain (except Canaries)
Russia: Moscow, St. Petersburg (see below)
Russia has several time zones, varying from UT +2 to UT +12. Moscow and
St. Petersburg are in the UT +3 zone.
For information on time zones in other countries, see
New York City and Toronto are at Universal Time minus 5 hours. If it's
noon (12:00) in New York and Toronto, it's 17:00 in London and 20:00 in
Los Angeles and Vancouver are at Universal Time minus 8 hours. If it's
noon in Los Angeles and Vancouver, it's 20:00 in London and 23:00 in
Japan is at Universal Time plus 14 hours. If it's noon in Japan, it's
1:00 in Moscow, and 22:00 of the previous day in London.
During "Summer Time" or "Daylight Saving Time", add one hour to the
normal time. Please note that summer time is in effect at different
times in different countries; however, all the countries of the
European Union change on the same date.