This article is from the Chemistry FAQ, by Bruce Hamilton B.Hamilton@irl.cri.nz with numerous contributions by others.
There is a sci.chem.analytical group where specific questions can be
posted after you have attempted to find the information in the following
sources. For qualitative information, the spot test books by Fiegl [8,9]
and "Semi-micro Vogel", are good starting points. For introductory
quantitative analysis, "Quantitative Inorganic" ,"Practical Organic
Chemistry" by Vogel are good introductions to non-instrumental
techniques. The multi-volume "Treatise on Analytical Chemistry" by
Kolthoff and Elving  comprehensively discusses most techniques, and
several volumes of the ACS Series "Techniques in Chemistry"  also cover
analytical procedures. " Instrumental Methods of Analysis" by Willard,
Merritt, Dean and Settle , and "Analytical Instrumentation Handbook" by
Ewing  provide a good introduction to chemical instrumentation. Most
educational institutions will have equivalent texts if they are not using the
For specific analyses it is often desirable to use standard procedures,
especially if your laboratory is seeking ISO 9001 accreditation, or if the
results are likely to be disputed. Some well known compilations of standard
- usually specified by manufacturers or chemical societies
BDH 'Analar' Standards for Laboratory Chemicals 
ACS Reagent Chemicals 
Materials, Industrial Chemicals, and Finished Products.
- usually the monographs in the following volumes also specify assay and
impurity limits, as well as detailing the analytical procedure.
ASTM - Issued annually, cover physical and chemical testing of a wide range
of industrial products. Often require specialised test equipment.
ISO - International standards, usually derived from US(ASTM), UK(BSI) or
FRG(DIN) standards. Similar to above.
- usually the pharmacopoeia have monographs and methods, but some methods
are also specified in National Formulary or Pharmaceutical Codex volumes,
which may be separate from the pharmacopoeia.
- common pharmacopoeia are USP, BP, and EP - with Martindale  often used
to ascertain where and when a specific monograph appeared.
- often the procedures specified in Government legislation.
- The Official Methods of the AOAC  covers many routine US methods.
- the procedures are usually specified in the relevant legislation, and
frequently US EPA procedures are used. Several common EPA procedures are
now available on computer disk [21,22].
- usually covered by ASTM, ISO or DIN, but there are some unique IP
( Institute of Petroleum - UK ) procedures that are also used.
- "Chromatography in Petroleum Analysis", summarises popular techniques.
- instrument manufacturers have fairly detailed procedures for process gases.
- "The Analysis of Gases by Chromatography", provides useful examples.
Water and Wastewater
- the APHA/WWA/WPCF standard methods are most often used 
- many tests are also covered by ASTM, ISO, and DIN procedures
- alternative techniques are described in "Water Analysis" 
- organics in water are covered by Crompton 
- most aspects of water chemistry are detailed in Franks 
- consumable and instrument manufacturers often provide detailed manuals
and guides free.
- "Methods of Decomposition in Inorganic Analysis"  covers a wide range
of preparations for spectroscopy.
- The "Handbook of Analytical Derivatization Reactions"  and the
" Handbook of Derivatives for Chromatography"  cover many of the
techniques for gas and liquid chromatography.
Obviously there are several journals devoted to various aspects of
analytical chemistry. The April issue of Analytical Chemistry publishes
a review of papers published during the previous two years. The review
alternates between Fundamental and Application Reviews and is a quick means
of catching current trends if you are unable to locate an expert.