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9.02 What do the industry acronyms stand for?


This item is from the PC Hardware FAQ, by Willie Lim and Ralph Valentino with numerous contributions by others. (v1.25).

9.02 What do the industry acronyms stand for?

[From ralf@alum.wpi.edu (Ralph Valentino)]

This is a list of 300+ acronyms which commonly come up in discussion of hardware. It does not contain abbreviations or names that don't stand for anything, nor does it attempt to explain exactly what the technology does, where it can be found, nor even how to use it in a sentence. So, is it completely useless? Well, sometimes just knowing what an acronym stands for is enough to tell you what people are talking about or where to go to get more information about it.

If anyone has any additions, comments, or corrections, please forward them to me directly. Keep in mind that I have tried to avoid software topics except where they overlap with hardware ones, so don't bother telling me what BASIC stands for as it is outside the scope of this list.

ABR	Available Bit Rate
AC	Alternating Current
AE	Applications Engineer
AFS	Andrew File System
AI	Artificial Intelligence
ALU	Arithmetic-Logic Unit
AM	Amplitude Modulated
AMD	Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
AMI	American Megatrends Inc.
ANSI	American National Standards Institute
ASCII	American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASIC	Application Specific Integrated Circuit
ASPI	Advanced SCSI Programming Interface
AT	Advanced Technology
ATA	AT bus Attachment
ATAPI	AT Attachment Packet Interface
ATDM	Asynchronous Time Division Multiplexing
ATM	Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AUI	Attached Unit Interface
BBS	Bulletin Board System
BCC	Block Check Character
BCD	Binary Coded Decimal
BE	Back End
BER	Bit Error Rate
BGA	Ball Grid Array
BiCMOS	Bipolar Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
BIOS	Basic Input / Output System
BNC	Bayonet Nut Connector
BPS/bps	Bytes/bits Per Second
BSC	Binary Synchronous Communications
BSD	Berkeley Standard Distribution
BTU	British Thermal Units
CAD	Computer Aided Design
CAM	Computer Aided Manufacturing
CAM	Content Addressable Memory
CAM	Common Access Method (Committee)
CAS	Column Address Strobe
CBX	Common Branch eXtender
CCD	Charge Coupled Device
CCITT	Consultative Committee of International Telephony and Telegraphy
CD	Carrier Detect
CDDI	Copper Distributed Data Interface
CDROM	Compact Disk Read Only Memory
CGA	Color Graphics Adaptor
CHS	Cylinder Head Sector
CISC	Complex Instruction-Set Computer
CLA	Carry Lookahead Adder
CMOS	Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
CP/M	Control Program / Monitor
CPI	Clocks Per Instruction
CQFP	Ceramic Quad-FlatPack
CPU	Central Processing  Unit
CR	Carriage Return
CRC	Cyclical redundancy check
CRQ	Command Response Queue
CRT	Cathode Ray Tube
CS	Chip Select
CSMA	Carrier Sense Multiple-Access
CSMA/CD	Carrier Sense Multiple-Access with Collision Detect
CSR	Command Status Register
CTS	Clear To Send
DAE	Digital Audio Extraction
DASD	Direct Access Storage Device
DAT	Digital Audio Tape
DC	Direct Current
DCD	Data Carrier Detect
DCE	Data Circuit-terminating Equipment
DD	Double Density
DEC	Digital Equipment Corporation
DES	Data Encryption Standard
DID	Direct Inward Dial
DIMM	Dual Inline Memory Module
DIN	Deutsche Industrie Norm
DIP	Dual-In-line Package
DIS	Draft International Standard
DMA	Direct Memory Access
DOS	Disk Operating System
DPE	Data Parity Error
DPSK	Differential Phase Shift Keying
DRAM	Dynamic Random Access Memory
DS	Double Sided
DSP	Digital Signal Processor
DSR	Data Set Ready
DTC	Data Terminal Controller
DTE	Data Terminating Equipment
DTMF	Dual-Tone MultiFrequency
DTR	Data Terminal Ready
EBCDIC	Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
ECC	Error Correction Code
ECL	Emitter-Coupled Logic
ECO	Engineering Change Order
ECU	EISA Configuration Utility
EDO	Extended Data Out
EEPROM	Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
EGA	Enhanced Graphics Adaptor
EIA	Electronic Industries Association
EIDE	Enhanced Integrated Device Electronics
EISA	Enhanced Industry Standard Architecture
EMI	Electro-Magnetic Interference
EMF	Electro-Magnetic Force
EMS	Expanded Memory Specification
EOF	End Of File
EOL	End Of Line
EOS	Electrical Overstress
EPROM	Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
ESD	Electro-Static Discharge
ESDI	Enhanced Small Devices Interface
FAT	File Allocation Table
FCC	Federal Communications Commission
FDD	Fixed Disk Drive (or Floppy Disk Drive)
FDDI	Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FDM	Frequency Division Multiplexing
FDX	Full-Duplex Transmission
FE	Front End
FEP	Front End Processor
FF	Form Feed
FIFO	First-In First-Out
FILO	First-In Last-Out (same as LIFO)
FM	Frequency Modulation
FPGA	Field Programmable Gate Array
FPU	Floating Point Unit
FRU	Field-Replaceable Unit
FSF	Free Software Foundation
FSK	Frequency Shifty Keying
FTP	File Transfer Program
GAS	Gallium Arsenide
GFLOPS	Billions (10^9) of FLOating Point Operations Per Second ("GigaFlops")
GNU	Gnu's Not Unix
GUI	Graphical User Interface
HD	High Density
HDD	Hard Disk Drive
HDX	Half-Duplex Transmission
HFS	Hierarchical File System
HPFS	High Performance File System
HS	Helical Scan
I/O	Input / Output
IBM	International Business Machines Corp.
IC	Integrated Circuit
ICU	ISA Configuration Utility
IDC	Insulation Displacement Connector
IDE	Integrated Device Electronics
IEEE	Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
IMP	Interface Message Processor
IPC	InterProcess Communication
IRQ	Interrupt ReQuest
ISA	Industry Standard Architecture
ISDN	Integrated Services Digital Network
ISO	International Standards Organization
Jedec	Joint Electronic Device Engineering Council
JFS	Journaled File System
kVA	KiloVolt-Amps
LAN	Local Area Network
LAPM	Link Access Procedure M
LBA	Linear Block Array
LCD	Liquid Crystal Display
LED	Light Emitting Diode
LF	Line Feed
LIM	Lotus/Intel/Microsoft Expanded Memory Manager Specification
LRU	Least-Recently Used
LSB/lsb	Least Significant Byte/bit
LSI	Large Scale Integration
LUN	Logical Unit Number
MAN	Metropolitan Area Network
MB/Mb	Mega Bytes/bits
MBR	Master Boot Record
MCA	Micro Channel Architecture
MCGA	Multi-Color Graphics Array
MCM	Multi-Chip Module
MFLOPS	Millions of FLOating Point Operations per Second ("MegaFlops")
MFM	Modified Frequency Modulated
MHz	MegaHertz
MICR	Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
MIDI	Musical Instrument Digital Interface
MIMD	Multiple-Instruction Multiple-Data
MIPS	Millions of Instructions per Second
MISD	Multiple-Instruction Single Data
MMU	Memory Management Unit
MNP	Microcom Network Protocol
MODEM	MOdulator / DEModulator
MOPS	Millions of Operations Per Second
MOS	Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
MP	MultiProcessor
MPP	Massively Parallel Processor
MSB/msb	Most Significant Byte/bit
MSDOS	Microsoft Disk Operating System
MSI	Medium Scale Integration
MTBF	Mean Time Between Failure
MTU	Maximum Transfer Unit
N/C	No-Connect
NBS	National Bureau of Standards
NEMA	National Electrical Manufacturers Association
NFS	Network File System
NFU	Not-Frequently Used
NIU	Network Interface Unit
NMI	Non-Maskable Interrupt
NMOS	Negatively doped Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
NOP	No OPeration
NRU	Not-Recently Used
NSF	National Science Foundation
NVRAM	NonVolatile Random Access Memory
OCR	Optical Character Recognition
ODI	Open Datalink Interface
OEM	Original Equipment Manufacturer
OS	Operating System
OSF	Open Software Foundation
OSI	Open Systems Interconnect
PAL/PLA	Programmable Array Logic (Logic Array)
PB	Push Button
PBX	Private Branch eXtender
PC	Personal Computer, Program Counter
PCB	Printed Circuit Board
PCI	Peripheral Component Interconnect
PCM	Pulse Code Modulation
PCMCIA	Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
PE	Processor Element
PFF	Page Fault Frequency
PGA	Pin Grid Array
PIC	Programmable Interrupt Controller
PIO	Programmed Input/Output
PLCC	Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier
PLL	Phase Locked Loop
PM	Preventive Maintenance
PMOS	Positively doped Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
POST	Power On Self Test
PPP	Point-to-Point Protocol
PQFP	Plastic Quad-FlatPack
PROM	Programmable Read-Only Memory
PSTN	Public Switched Telephone Network
PTE	Page Table Entry
QAM	Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
QFP	Quad-FlatPack
QIC	Quarter Inch Cartridge
QoS	Quality of Service
RAID	Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks
RAM	Random Access Memory
RAMDAC	Random Access Memory Digital to Analog Converter
RAS	Row Address Strobe
RCA	Radio Corporation of America
RCC	Routing Control Center
RFC	Request For Comments
RFI	Radio Frequency Interference
RI	Ring Indicator
RISC	Reduced Instruction-Set Computer
RLL	Run Length Limited
RMM	Read Mostly Memory (same as EPROM)
RMS	Root Mean Squared
RMW	Read Modify Write
ROM	Read-Only Memory
RPC	Remote Procedure Call
RPM	Rotations Per Minute
RTC	Real Time Clock
RTS	Request To Send
SAM	Sequential Access Memory
SASI	Shugart Associates Standard Interface
SCSI	Small Computer Systems Interface
SD	Single Density
SDLC	Synchronous Data Link Control
SDRAM	Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
SE	Systems Engineer
SIMD	Single-Instruction Multiple-Data
SIMM	Single Inline Memory Module
SIPP	Single Inline Pinned Package
SISD	Single-Instruction Single-Data
SLIP	Serial Line Internet Protocol
SMD	Surface Mount Device
SMT	Surface Mount Technology
SNA	System Network Architecture
SNR	Signal to Noise Ratio
SO/SOL	Small OutLine
SOIC	Small Outline Integrated Circuit
SPOOL	Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On Line
SPT	Sectors Per Track
SPU	Single Processor Unit
SQE	Signal Quality Error
SRAM	Static Random Access Memory
SS	Single Sided
STDM	Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing
STN	Super Twisted Nematic
STU	Streaming Tape Unit
SVC	Switched Virtual Channel
SVGA	Super Video Graphics Array
TCM	Trellis Code Modulation
TCP/IP	Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
TDM	Time Division Multiplexing
TI	Texas Instruments
TIA	Telecomm. Industry Assocation
TLB	Translation-Lookaside Buffer
TPI	Tracks Per Inch
TSR	Terminate and Stay Resident
TTL	Transistor-Transistor Logic
TUV	Technischer Ueberwachuags Verein
UART	Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
UDP	User Datagram Protocol
UMB	Upper Memory Block
UPS	Uninterruptible Power Supply
USL	Unix System Labs
UTP	Unshielded Twisted Pair
UUCP	Unix to Unix Copy Program
VC	Virtual Channel
VCI	Virtual Channel Identifier
VCR	Video Cassette Recorder
VESA	Video Enhanced Standards Association
VGA	Video Graphics Array
VLB	VESA Local Bus
VLIW	Very Long Instruction Word
VLSI	Very Large Scale Integration
VM	Virtual Memory
VME	Versa Module Eurocard
VP	Virtual Path
VR	Virtual Reality
VRAM	Video Random Access Memory
VTR	Video Tape Recorder
WAN	Wide Area Network
WATS	Wide Area Telephone Service
WD	Western Digital
WORM	Write-Once Read-Many
WS	Wait State
XGA	eXtended Graphics Array
XMS	Extended Memory Specification
XOR	Exclusive-Or
XT	eXtended Technology
ZIF	Zero Insertion Force


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