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Hard Drive: QUANTUM: QM 31280TMS-LED 1281MB 3.5"/SL SCSI2/3 SE




Q M   3 1 2 8 0 T M S - L E D    QUANTUM
                                                      Native|  Translation
                                                      ------+-----+-----+-----
Form                 3.5"/SLIMLINE         Cylinders        |     |     |
Capacity form/unform  1281/      MB        Heads           2|     |     |
Seek time   / track  12.0/ 3.0 ms          Sector/track     |     |     |
Controller           SCSI2/3 SI/FAST       Precompensation
Cache/Buffer           128 KB DYNAMIC      Landing Zone
Data transfer rate    6.700 MB/S int       Bytes/Sector      512
                     10.000 MB/S ext SYNC
Recording method     PRML 16/17                     operating  | non-operating
                                                  -------------+--------------
Supply voltage     5/12 V       Temperature *C           55    |    -40 65
Power: sleep          1.2 W     Humidity     %        10 90    |      5 95
       standby            W     Altitude    km    -0.200  3.000| -0.200 12.000
       idle           3.7 W     Shock        g        10       |     70
       seek           6.0 W     Rotation   RPM      4500
       read/write     6.0 W     Acoustic   dBA        32
       spin-up       17.8 W     ECC        Bit   224BIT REED SOLOMON,ON THE...
                                MTBF         h     400000
                                Warranty Month
Lift/Lock/Park     YES          Certificates     CE(EU),CISPR22,CSA,FCC,TUV...

Layout

QUANTUM FIREBALL TM 1.2/2.1/3.2S PRODUCT MANUAL 81-111393-01

  +----------------+----------------------------------------+
  +-+              |                                +++++JP1|XX
  | |              | +-+                   Jumpers  +++++   |XXI
  | +--------------+-+ +                           TE   A2  |XXN
  | +--------------+-+ +                                    |XXT
  | |              | +-+                                    |XXE
  +-+              |                                        |XXR
  |                |                                        |XXF
  |                | +-J5                                   |XXA
  |                | | |                                    |XXC
  |                | +-+                                    |XXE
  |                |                                        |XX
  |                |                                        |XX
  |                |                                        |XX
  |                |                                        |
  |                |                                        |XX Power
  |                |                                        |XX
  +----------------+----------------------------------------+

  Jumpers
 +--+--+--+--+JP1
 |TE|A0|A1|A2|
 +--+--+--+--+

    +-------- RES
    | +------ A0
    | | +---- A1
    | | | +-- A2
    | | | | + GND
   +-+-+-+-+-+
  -+-+-+-+-+-+------------
    J5 (side view)

Jumpers

QUANTUM FIREBALL TM S PRODUCT MANUAL 81-111393-01 09/1996

Jumper Setting
==============

Jumper Options
--------------
The configuration of three jumpers control the drive's mode of
operation:

- A2, A1, and A0 - SCSI Bus Device Identification

- TE - Termination Enable

In addition to the hardware jumpers listed above, the Quantum Fire-
ball TM 1.2/2.1/3.2S hard disk drive supports software control of
SCSI ID, Parity Enable, Wait Spin as determined by Mode Page 39h.
Plug-and-play SCSI is also supported.

The factory default is for SCSI ID to be controlled by hardware
jumpers A2, A1, and A0 of JP1.

A2/A1/A0 SCSI-Bus Device Identification
----------------------------------------
Used in combination, the jumper settings across A2, A1, and A0 de-
termine the Fireball TM 1.2/2.1/3.2S hard disk drive's SCSI-bus
device identification (SCSI ID). By default, Quantum configures the
drive with a SCSI ID of six; that is, with jumpers installed across
the pins labeled A2 and A1, and no jumper installed across the pins
labeled A0.

   +----------+-----------------------+
   | SCSI ID  |        Jumpers        |
   |          |  A2   |  A1   |  A0   |
   +----------+-------+-------+-------+
   |    0     | OPEN  | OPEN  | OPEN  |
   +----------+-------+-------+-------+
   |    1     | OPEN  | OPEN  | CLOSED|
   +----------+-------+-------+-------+
   |    2     | OPEN  | CLOSED| OPEN  |
   +----------+-------+-------+-------+
   |    3     | OPEN  | CLOSED| CLOSED|
   +----------+-------+-------+-------+
   |    4     | CLOSED| OPEN  | OPEN  |
   +----------+-------+-------+-------+
   |    5     | CLOSED| OPEN  | CLOSED|
   +----------+-------+-------+-------+
   |x   6     | CLOSED| CLOSED| OPEN  |
   +----------+-------+-------+-------+
   |    7     | CLOSED| CLOSED| CLOSED|
   +----------+-------+-------+-------+

The SCSI bus supports up to eigth devices, including the host system.
A device's identification number determines its priority and must be
unique in the system.

TE SCSI Bus Termination Enable Jumper
-------------------------------------
This jumper enables SCSI bus active termination on the drive when
installed (TE=1). Only the two SCSI peripherals located at the ends
of the SCSI bus should have termination enabled. When removed (PK
position may be used to store the jumper), the termination circuit
is disabled. In the disabled mode, each individual SCSI bus line is
electrically isolated from the termination source. The method allows
easier enable and disable termination.

Install

QUANTUM FIREBALL TM S PRODUCT MANUAL 81-111393-01 09/1996

Notes on Installation
=====================

Installation direction
----------------------

     horizontally                           vertically
   +-----------------+             +--+                       +--+
   |                 |             |  +-----+           +-----+  |
   |                 |             |  |     |           |     |  |
 +-+-----------------+-+           |  |     |           |     |  |
 +---------------------+           |  |     |           |     |  |
                                   |  |     |           |     |  |
                                   |  |     |           |     |  |
 +---------------------+           |  +-----+           +-----+  |
 +-+-----------------+-+           +--+                       +--+
   |                 |
   |                 |
   +-----------------+

Orientation
-----------
The mounting holes on the Fireball TM 1.2/2.1/3.2S hard disk drive
allow the drive to be mounted in any orientation.

Mounting
--------
For mounting, #6-32 UNC screws are recommended.

CAUTION: The PCB is very close to the mounting holes. Do not exceed
the specified length (3.5 mm, side 4 mm) for the mounting screws. The
specified screw length allows full use of the mounting-hole threads,
while avoiding damaging or placing unwanted stress on the PCB.

To avoid stripping the mounting-hole threads, the maximum torque
applied to the screws must not exceed 8 inch-pounds. A maximum screw
length of 0.25 inches may be used in the side mounting locations when
a bracket of 0.040 inches minimum thickness is included.

Clearance
---------
Clearance from the drive - except mounting surfaces - to any other
surface must be 0.05 inches minimum.

Ventilation
-----------
The Fireball TM 1.2/2.1/3.2S hard disk drive operates without a
cooling fan, provided the ambient air temperature does not exceed
131*F (55*C).

 Power Sequencing
 ----------------
 You may apply the power in any order or manner, or short or open
 either the power or power-return line with no loss of data or damage
 to the disk drive. However, data may be lost in the sector being
 written at the time of power loss. The drive can withstand transient
 voltages of +10% to -100% from nominal while powering up or down.

Disk Caching
------------
The Fireball TM 1.2/2.1/3.2S hard disk drive incorporates DisCache, a
70K disk cache, to enhance drive performance. This integrated feature
can significantly improve system throughput. Read and write caching
can be enabled or disabled using the MODE SELECT command.

 Acoustics
 ---------
  +-----------------+-----------------------+----------+
  | Operating Mode  | Measured Noise        | Distance |
  +-----------------+-----------------------+----------+
  | Idle On Track   | 32 dBA sound pressure | 1 m      |
  | typical         | 3.6 Bels (sound power)| 39.3 in. |
  +-----------------+-----------------------+----------+
  | Idle On Track   | 35 dBA sound pressure | 39.3 in  |
  | maximum         | 3.9 Bels (sound power)| (1 m)    |
  +-----------------+-----------------------+----------+

Automatic Actuator Lock
-----------------------
To ensure data integrity and prevent damage during shipment, the
drive uses a dedicated landing zone and Quantum's patented AIRLOCK.
The AIRLOCK holds the headstack in the landing zone whenever the
disks are not rotating. It consists of an air vane mounted near the
perimeter of the disk stack and a locking arm that restrains the
actuator arm assembly.

When DC power is applied to the motor and the disk stack rotates, the
rotation generates an airflow on the surface of the disk. As the flow
of air across the air vane increases with disk rotation, the locking
arm pivots away from the actuator arm, enabling the headstack to move
out of the landing. When DC power is removed from the motor, an
electric return mechanism automatically pulls the actuator into the
landing zone, where the AIRLOCK holds it in place.

Connectors
----------
J1 is a two section combination connector. The drive's DC power is
applied to section A. The SCSI interface (50-pin) uses section B. The
connector is mounted on the back edge of the printed-circuit (PCB).
A key slot on the header prevents the incorrect installation of the
header connector on the SCSI cable. To prevent the header connector
on the SCSI cable from being plugged in backwards, use only a keyed
header connector.

    +----------------------------------------+
    |                                        |
    |                                        |
    | +-----J1--Section-B----------Section-A |
    | |+-------------------------++4-3-2-1+| |
    | ||oooooooooooooooooooooooo1||O O O O|| |
    | ||ooooooooooooooooooooooooo||       || |
    | |+-------------------------++-------+| |
    +-+------------------------------------+-+

Recommended header connector and strain relief:

   50-pin connector base part      AMP P/N 1-746195-2 or equivalent
   50-pin connector strain relief  AMP P/N 499508-2 or equivalent

Recommended mating connector and their part numbers:

4-pin connector (J11 section A) AMP P/N 1-480424-0 or equivalent
Loose-piece contacts AMP P/N VS 60619-4 or equivalent
Strip contacts AMP P/N VS 61117-4 or equivalent

 -------------------+
 --+  +------------+|  pin 1    +12 VDC
  1|  | 4  3  2  1 ||  pin 2    +12 Volts Return
  -+  +------------+|  pin 3    + 5 Volts Return
  ------------------+  pin 4    + 5 VDC

 J5 Control Connector
 --------------------
 J5 may be used to connect an external switch for setting the SCSI ID
 of the drive. The recommended mating connectors are:
   +---+-------------+----------------------------+
   |Pin|Function     | Mating Connector Type and  |
   |   |             | Part Number (or equivalent)|
   +---+-------------+----------------------------+
   | 5 |Ground       | Five position housing:     |
   +---+-------------+----------------------------+
   | 4 |A2           | Molex P/N 51021-0500       |
   +---+-------------+----------------------------+
   | 3 |A1           | Loose-piece contacts:      |
   +---+-------------+----------------------------+
   | 2 |A0           | Molex P/N 50058-8100       |
   +---+-------------+----------------------------+
   | 1 |RESERVED (no |                            |
   |   |connection)  |                            |
   +---+-------------+----------------------------+

DC Motor Assembly
-----------------
Integral with the base casting, the DC motor assembly is a fixed-
shaft, brushless DC spindle motor that drives the counter-clockwise
rotation of the disks.

Air Filtration
--------------
The Fireball TM hard disk drives are Winchester-type drives. The
heads fly very close to the media surface. Therefore, it is essential
that the air circulating within the drive be kept free of particles.
Quantum assembles the drive in a Class-100, purified air environment,
then seals the drive with a metal cover. When the drive is in use,
the rotation of the disks forces the air inside of the drive through
an internal filter.

Features

QUANTUM FIREBALL TM S PRODUCT MANUAL 81-111393-01 09/1996

Product Overview
----------------
Quantum's Fireball TM 1.2/2.1/3.2S hard disk drives are a part of a
family of high-performance, 1-inch-high, hard disk drives
manufactured to meet the highest product quality standards. Fireball
hard disk drives use nonremovable, 3 -inch hard disks and are
available with a Small Computer System Interface (SCSI-2, 3).

The Fireball TM 1.2/2.1/3.2S hard disk drives feature an embedded
SCSI drive controller and use SCSI commands to optimize system
performance. Because the drive manages media defects and error
recovery internally, these operations are fully transparent to the
user.

The innovative design of Fireball TM 1.2/2.1/3.2S hard disk drives
enables Quantum to produce a family of low-cost, high-reliability
drives.

Performance:

Average rotational latency of 6.67 ms

128K buffer with 70K dynamic segmentation cache. Look-ahead DisCache
feature with continues prefetch and WriteCache write-buffering
capabilities.

Read-on-arrival firmware

ECC-on-the-fly

1:1 interleave on read/write operations

SCSI-bus active termination

SCSI-bus active negation drivers

Formatted Capacity
------------------
At the factory, the Fireball TM 1.2/2.1/3.2S receives a low-level
format that creates the actual tracks and sectors on the drive.

Reliability
-----------
Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF):

400,000 Power On Hours (POH), typical usage

The Quantum MTBF numbers represent Bell-Core MTBF TR-TSY-000332
predictions and represent the minimum MTBF that Quantum or a customer
would expect from the drive.

Preventive Maintenance (PM): Not required

Start/Stop: 40,000 cycles (minimum)

Component Life: 5 Years

Error Detection and Correction
------------------------------
As disk drive areal densities increase, obtaining extremely low error
rates requires a new generation of sophisticated error-correction
codes. Quantum Fireball TM 1.2/2.1/3.2S series hard disk drives
implement 224-bit trible burst Reed-Solomon error-correction
techniques to reduce the uncorrectable read error rate to less than
one bit in 1 x 10(14) bits read.

When errors occurs, an automatic retry and a more rigorous double-
burst correction algorithm enable the correction of any sector with
two bursts of three incorrect bytes each or up to six multiple
random one-byte burst errors. In addition to these advanced error
correction capabilities, the drive's additional cross-checking code
and algorithm double checks the main ECC correction to greatly re-
duce the probability of miscorrection.

Defect Management
-----------------
The Fireball TM allocate two sectors per cylinder as a spare.

In the factory, the media is scanned for defects. If a sector on a
cylinder is found to be defective, the address of the sector is added
to the drive's defect list. Sectors located physically subsequent to
the defective sector are assigned logical block addresses such that a
sequential ordering of logical blocks is maintained. This inline
sparing technique is employed in an attempt to eliminate slow data
transfer that would result from a single defective sector on a
cylinder.

If more than two sectors are found defective on a cylinder, the above
inline sparing technique is applied only to the two sectors. The
remaining defective sectors are replaced with the nearest available
spare sectors on nearby cylinders. Such an assignment of additional
replacement sectors from nearby sectors rather than having a central
pool of spare sectors is an attempt to minimize the motion of the
actuator and head that otherwise would be needed to find a replace-
ment sector. The result is minimal reduction of data throughput.

Data Transfer Rates
-------------------
Data is transferred from the disk to the read buffer at a rate up to
10.4 MB/s in bursts. Data is transferred from the read buffer to the
SCSI bus at a rate of up to 5.0 MB/sec in the asynchronous mode, or
at up to 10.0 MB/s in the synchronous mode, or up to 20.0 MB/s in the
Ultra SCSI mode.

Track and Cylinder Skewing
--------------------------
Track and cylinder skewing in the Fireball TM 1.2/2.1/3.2S minimizes
latency time and thus increases data throughput.

Track Skewing
-------------
Track skewing reduces the latency time that results when the drive
must switch read/write heads to access sequential data. A track skew
is employed such that the next logical sector of data to be accessed
will be under the read/write head once the head switch is made and
the data is ready to be accessed. Thus, when sequential data is on
the same cylinder but on a different disk surface, a head switch is
needed but not a seek. Since the sequential head-switch time is well
defined on the Fireball TM 1.2/2.1/3.2S, the sector addresses can be
optimally positioned across track boundaries to minimize the latency
time during a head switch.

Cylinder Skewing
----------------
Cylinder Skewing also is used to minimize the latency tome associated
with a single-cylinder seek. The next logical sector of data that
crosses a cylinder boundary is positioned on the drive such that
after a single-cylinder seek is performed, and when the drive is
ready to continue accessing data, the sector to be accessed is
positioned directly under the read/write head. Therefore, the
cylinder skew takes place between the last sector of data on the last
head of a cylinder and the first sector of data on the first head of
the next cylinder. Since single-cylinder seeks are well defined on
the Fireball TM 1.2/2.1/3.2S, the sector addresses can be optimally
positioned across cylinder boundaries to minimize the latency time
associate with a single-cylinder seek.

Plug-and-Play SCSI
------------------
Plug-and-Play SCSI firmware simplifies disk drive installation by
allowing automatic SCSI ID configuration without the use of manual
jumper settings. This feature supports the plug-and-play SCSI
initiative developed by major computer, operating system, and
peripheral manufacturers.

Plug-and-Play SCSI incorporates a new protocol that can automatically
assign a SCSI device ID to participating devices. There are no
jumpers or switches to set; no user involvement is necessary. Of
course, Fireball drives are fully compatible with pre-plug-and-play
hosts and targets.

Plug-and-Play SCSI Initiator and Targets
----------------------------------------
A plug-and-play SCSI Initiator is a device that is capable of
assigning a SCSI ID. Most systems have only one Initiator. A
plug-and-play SCSI Target is a device that is capable of having a
SCSI ID assigned to it by a plug-and-play Initiator.

Most plug-and-play SCSI devices have a default SCSI ID that they use
in non-plug-and-play systems; however, they do not use the default ID
until they have detected selection by a non-plug-and-play initiator.
Once this default ID has been used, the device is said to have
"confirmed" its default ID. Before confirmation, the plug-and-play
SCSI device delays its response to a selection for 4 ms. (This delay
permits a plug-and-play SCSI Initiator to scan the SCSI bus for plug-
and-play SCSI tolerant devices. Once confirmed, plug-and-play SCSI
devices act like "normal" SCSI devices.

Plug-and-Play SCSI Tolerant Devices
-----------------------------------
A device is plug-and-play SCSI tolerant if it is compatible with the
plug-and-play protocol (most SCSI devices fall within this category).

A plug-and-play SCSI tolerant device can be detected if it:

- Enables responding to selections within 5 seconds after power on

- Enables responding to selections within 250 ms after reset

- Actually responds to a selection (by asserting BSY) within 1 ms

- Implements the hard reset alternative













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