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Hard Drive: QUANTUM: LIGHTNING LT-540 AT 541MB 3.5"/SL ATA2 FAST




L I G H T N I N G   L T - 5 4 0   A T    QUANTUM
                                                      Native|  Translation
                                                      ------+-----+-----+-----
Form                 3.5"/SLIMLINE         Cylinders        | 1120|     |
Capacity form/unform   541/      MB        Heads           3|   16|     |
Seek time   / track  11.0/ 4.0 ms          Sector/track     |   59|     |
Controller           IDE / ATA2 FAST/ENHA  Precompensation
Cache/Buffer           128 KB SEGMENTED    Landing Zone
Data transfer rate    5.900 MB/S int       Bytes/Sector      512
                     13.300 MB/S ext DMA
Recording method     RLL 1/7                        operating  | non-operating
                                                  -------------+--------------
Supply voltage     5/12 V       Temperature *C           55    |    -40 65
Power: sleep          0.8 W     Humidity     %         5 85    |      5 95
       standby        0.8 W     Altitude    km            3.000|        12.000
       idle           3.6 W     Shock        g        10       |     60
       seek           5.7 W     Rotation   RPM      4500
       read/write     5.7 W     Acoustic   dBA        33
       spin-up            W     ECC        Bit   112,REED SOLOMON
                                MTBF         h     300000
                                Warranty Month        24
Lift/Lock/Park     YES          Certificates     CSA,FCC,TUV,UL1950,VDE

Layout

QUANTUM LIGHTNING 365/540/730AT PRODUCT MANUAL 81-106892-01

  +---------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                  JP2 +-+-+-+JP1+-+-+-+  |XX
  | +-+                                  +-+-+-+   +-+-+-+  |XX
  | | |                                       PO   SP DS CS |XX
  | | |HDA                                                  |XX
  | +-+                                                     |XX AT-Bus
  |                                                         |.X  J1 C
  |                                                         |XX
  |                                                         |XX
  |                                                         |XX
  |                                                         |XX
  |                                                         |X1
  |                                                         |
  |                                                         |XX Power
  |                                                         |XX1 J1 B
  |                                                         |xx
  | +-+LED                                                  |XX Power
  | +-+J2                                                   |XX  J1 A
  +---------------------------------------------------------+  1

Jumpers

QUANTUM LIGHTNING 365/540/730AT PRODUCT MANUAL 81-106892-01

Jumper setting
==============

x = Jumper set at factory

 JP1  Drive Select/Cable Select/Slave Present
 --------------------------------------------
   +------+------+------+--------------------------------------------+
   |DS    |CS    |SP    | Description                                |
   +------+------+------+--------------------------------------------+
   |OPEN  |OPEN  |OPEN  | Slave Drive                                |
   |      |      |      | Compatible with drive using PDIAG- line to |
   |      |      |      | handle Master/Slave communications         |
   +------+------+------+--------------------------------------------+
  x|CLOSED|OPEN  |OPEN  | Master Drive                               |
   |      |      |      | Uses DASP- to check for the presence of a  |
   |      |      |      | Slave                                      |
   +------+------+------+--------------------------------------------+
   |CLOSED|OPEN  |CLOSED| Master Drive                               |
   |      |      |      | Uses the SP jumper to determine whether a  |
   |      |      |      | Slave is present, without checking PDIAG-  |
   |      |      |      | or DASP-                                   |
   +------+------+------+--------------------------------------------+
   |OPEN  |CLOSED|   X  | Slave or Master Drive, depending on the    |
   |      |      |      | state of the Quantum Cable Select signal   |
   |      |      |      | (pin 28) at the IDE-bus interface          |
   |      |      |      | connector.                                 |
   |      |      |      | If the signal state is set to OPEN         |
   |      |      |      | (grounded) then the drive is configured a  |
   |      |      |      | if DS were CLOSED, described earlier.If the|
   |      |      |      | Cable Select signal is set to CLOSED       |
   |      |      |      | (high), then the drive is configured as if |
   |      |      |      | DS were OPEN, described earlier.           |
   +------+------+------+--------------------------------------------+

X indicates the jumper setting does not matter.

 Caution: The CS and DS jumpers should never be installed at the same
          time.

DS Drive Select Jumper
-----------------------
You can also daisy-chain two drives on the IDE-bus Interface as
by using the DS (Drive Select) jumpers. If the DS jumper is
installed, the CS jumper must be removed (OPEN).

To configure a drive as the Master (Drive 0), a jumper must be
installed at the DS pins.

To configure a drive as the Slave (Drive 1), the DS jumper must be
removed.

NOTE
The order in which drives are connected in a daisy chain has no
significance.

CS Cable Select Jumper
-----------------------
When two Lightning 365/540/730A hard disk drives are daisy-chained
together, they can be configured as Master and Slave by using the CS
jumper or by using the DS jumper - BUT NOT BOTH at the same time. To
configure the drive as a Master or Slave with the CS feature, the CS
jumper is installed and the DS jumper is removed.

Once you install the CS jumper, the drive is configured as a Master
or Slave by the state of the Cable Select signal: pin 28 of the IDE
bus connector. Please not that pin 28 is a vendor-specific pin that
Quantum is using for a specific purpose. More than one function is
allocated to CS, according to the ATA CAM specification. If pin 28
is a 0 (grounded), the drive is configured as a Master. If it is a 1
(high), the drive is configured as a Slave. In order to configute two
drives in a Master/Slave relationship using the CS jumper, you need
to use a cable that provides the proper signal level at pin 28 of the
IDE bus connector.

SP Slave Present Jumper
------------------------
In combination with the current DS jumper settings, the Slave
Present jumper implements one of two possible configuratons:

When the drive is configured as a Master - that is, with the DS
jumper installed - the SP jumper should be installed on the Master
drive only if the Slave drive does not use the Drive Active/Slave
(DASP-) signal to indicate its presence.

When the drive is cnfigured as a Slave - that is, without the DS
jumper installed - the SP jumper enables the self-seek test. When
power is applied to the drive with the self-seek test enabled, the
drive executes seeks in a butterfly pattern.

If an error is encountered during the self-seek test, the test
terminates.

PO Product Option Jumper
------------------------
The PO jumper is reserved for use by specific customers. Do NOT
install the PO jumper for normal IDE master/slave operation.

J1A/B/C DC Power/Interface Connector
-------------------------------------
The drive's DC power can be applied to either section A or B.
The IDE-bus interface (40-pin) uses section C.

                J1 AT (40-pin)/DC (4-Pin & 3-Pin)
                Combination Connector
 +----------------------------------------------------------------+
 |                                               3-Pin    4-Pin   |
 |    40-Pin AT (J1 Section C)                   DC Power DC Power|
 |   +---------------------------------------+   J1 B     J1 A    |
 |   |o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 1|  +-----+ +-------+ |
 |   |o o o o o o o o o o . o o o o o o o o o|  |o o o| |o o o o| |
 |   ++-------------------+------------------+  +3-2-1+ +4-3-2-1+ |
 +----+-------------------+---------------------------------------+
      |                   |
      Pin 40              Missing Pin
                          Pin 20

 J1 A Pin 1  +12 VDC
          2  +12 VDC Return (Ground)
          3  + 5 VDC Return (Ground)
          4  + 5 VDC

 J1 B Pin 1  + 5 VDC
          2  +12 VDC
          3  Ground

Install

QUANTUM LIGHTNING 365/540/730AT PRODUCT MANUAL 81-106892-01

Notes on installation
=====================

Installation direction
----------------------

     horizontally                           vertically
   +-----------------+             +--+                       +--+
   |                 |             |  +-----+           +-----+  |
   |                 |             |  |     |           |     |  |
 +-+-----------------+-+           |  |     |           |     |  |
 +---------------------+           |  |     |           |     |  |
                                   |  |     |           |     |  |
                                   |  |     |           |     |  |
 +---------------------+           |  +-----+           +-----+  |
 +-+-----------------+-+           +--+                       +--+
   |                 |
   |                 |
   +-----------------+

The mounting holes on the Lightning 365/540/730A hard disk drive
allow the drive to be mounted in any orientation.

Mounting
--------
Drive mounting orientation, clearance, and ventilation requirements
are described in the following subsections. For mounting, #6-32 UNC
screws are recommended.

Caution: The PCB is very close to the mounting holes. Do not
exceed the specified length for the mounting screws. The specified
screw length allows full use of the mounting-hole threads, while
avoiding damaging or placing unwanted stress on the PCB. To avoid
stripping the mounting-hole threads, the maximum torque applied to
the mounting screws must not exceed 8 inch-pounds.

Clearance
---------
Clearance from the drive - except mounting surfaces - to any surface
must be 0.05 inches minimum.

Ventilation
-----------
The Lightning 365/540/730AT hard disk drives operates without a
cooling fan, provided the ambient air temperature does not exceed
131*F (55*C).

 DC Power (J1 A and B)
 ----------------------
 The recommended mating connectors for the +5VDC and +12VDC input
 power are listed above.

J1 A 4-Pin Connector: AMP P/N 1-480424-0

       Loose piece contacts: AMP P/N VS 60619-4

       Strip contacts:       AMP P/N VS 61117-4

J1 B 3-Pin Connector: Molex P/N 5484 39-27-0032

Power can be supplied to either J1 section A or J1 section B.
Labels indicates the pin numbers on the connectors.

 Power Sequencing
 ----------------
 You may apply the power in any order or manner, or short or open
 either the power or power return line with no loss of data or damage
 to the disk drive. However, data may be lost in the sector being
 written at the time of power loss. The drive can withstand transient
 voltages of +10% to -100% from nominal while powering up or down.

 LED Connector J2
 ----------------
 The LED connector may be used to connect an external LED for the pur-
 pose of monitoring drive activity. A 220-ohm resistor is connected in
 series from the +LED pin to +5 volts. The -LED pin is connected to a
 switching transistor on the drive that turns on and lights the LED
 when the disk is performing a read or write operation. When no read
 or write operation is taking place, the transistor turns off and the
 LED is extinguished. The recommended mating connector parts are
 following:

Two-position housing: Molex P/N 51021-0200
Loose-piece contacts: Molex P/N 50058-8100

Drive Cable and Connector
-------------------------
The hard disk drive connects to the host computer by means of a
cable. This cable contains a 40-pin connector that plug into the
drive, and a 40-pin connector that plugs into the host computer. At
the host end, the cable plugs into either an adapter board residing
in a host expansion slot or an on-board IDE adapter.

If two drives are connected by a cable with two 40-pin drive
connectors, the cable-select feature of the Lightning 365/540/730A
automatically configure each as drive 0 or drive 1 depending on the
configuration of pin 28 on the connector.

IDE-Bus Interface Connector (J1 C)
----------------------------------
On the Lightning 365/540/730A hard disk drive, the IDE-bus
interface cable connector (J1 section C) is a 40-pin Universal
Header.

To prevent the possibility of incorrect installation, has been keyed
by removing Pin 20, which ensures that a connector cannot be
installed upside down.

For Systems with a Motherboard IDE Adapter
==========================================
You can install the Lightning 365/540/730A hard disk drive in an
AT-compatible system that contains a 40-pin AT-bus connector on the
motherboard.

To connect the drive to the motherboard, use a 40-pin ribbon cable.
Ensure that pin 1 of the drive is connected to pin 1 of the mother-
board connector.

For Systems with an IDE Adapter Board
=====================================
To install a Lightning 365/540/730A hard disk drive in an
AT-compatible system without a 40-pin, AT-bus connector on its
motherboard, you need a third-party IDE-compatible adapter board.

Adapter Board Installation
--------------------------
Carefully read the manual that accompanies your adapter board before
installing it. Make sure that all the jumpers are set properly and
that there are no addressing or signal conflicts. You must also
investigate to see if your AT-compatible system contains a
combination floppy and hard disk controller board. If it does, you
must disable the hard disk drive controller functions on the
controller board before proceeding.

Once you have disabled the hard disk drive controller functions on
the floppy/hard drive controller, install the adapter board. Again,
make sure that you have set all jumper straps on the adapter board
to avoid addressing and signal conflicts.

Connecting the Adapter Board and the Drive
------------------------------------------
Use a 40-pin ribbon cable to connect the drive to the board.

  1. Insert the 40-pin cable connector into the mating connector on
     the adapter board. Make sure that pin 1 of the connector matches
     with pin 1 on the cable.

  2. Insert the other end of the cable into the header on the drive.
     When inserting this end of the cable, make sure that pin 1 of
     the cable connects to pin 1 of the drive connector.

  3. Secure the drive to the system chassis by using the mounting
     screws.

Base Casting Assembly
---------------------
A single-piece aluminium-alloy base casting provides a mounting sur-
face for the drive mechanism and PCB. The base casting also acts as
the flange for the DC motor assembly. To provide a contamination-free
environment for the HDA, a gasket provides a seal between the base
casting and the metal cover that enclose the drive mechanism.

Air Filtration
--------------
The Lightning 365/540/730A hard disk drives are Winchester-type
drives. The heads fly very close to the media surface. Therefore, it
is essential that the air circulating within the drive be kept free
of particles. Quantum assembles the drive in a Class-100, purified
air environment, then seals the drive with a metal cover. When the
drive is in use, the rotation of the disk forces the air inside of
the drive through an internal filter.

DC Motor Assembly
-----------------
Integral with the base casting, the DC motor assembly is a fixed-
shaft, brushless DC spindle motor that drives the counter-clockwise
rotation of the disks.

Electrical Characteristics
--------------------------
All signals are transistor-transistor logic (TTL) compatible - with
logic 1 greater than 2.0 volts and less than 5.25 volts; and logic 0
greater than 0.0 volts and less than 0.8 volts. Neither the adapter
board, motherboard interface, or drives require terminating
resistors.

Features

QUANTUM LIGHTNING 365/540/730AT PRODUCT MANUAL 81-106892-01

General Description
-------------------
Quantum's Lightning 365/540/730AT hard disk drives are a part of a
family of high-performance, 1-inch-high hard disk drives manufactured
to meet the highest product quality standards.

Lightning hard disk drives use nonremovable, 3 -inch hard disks, and
are available with a Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) or
Advanced Technology (AT) interface.

The Lightning 365/540/730AT hard disk drives feature an embedded AT
drive controller and use AT commands to optimize systems performance.
Because the drive manages media defects and error recovery
internally, these operations are fully transparent to the user.

System Startup and Operation
----------------------------
Once you have installed the Lightning 365/540/730A hard disk drive
and adapter board (if required) in the host system, you are ready to
partition and format the drive for operation. To set up the drive
correctly, follow these steps:

1. Power on the system

 2. Run the SETUP program. This is generally on a Diagnostics or
    Utilities disk, or within the system's BIOS.

3. Enter the appropriate parameters.

    The SETUP program allows you to enter the types of optional hard-
    ware installed - such as the hard disk drive type, the floppy disk
    drive capacity, and the display adapter type. The system's BIOS
    uses this information to initialize the system when the power is
    switched on. For instructions on how to use the SETUP program,
    refer to the system manual for your PC.

    During the AT system CMOS setup, you must enter the drive type for
    the Lightning 365/540/730A hard disk drive. The drive supports the
    translation of its physical drive geometry parameters such as
    cylinders, heads, and sectors per track, to a logical addressing
    mode. The drive can work with different BIOS drive-type tables of
    the various host systems.

4. Boot the system using the operating system installation disk.

NOTE
The drive is shipped from the factory with a low-level format. A low-
level format is not required.

Formatted Capacity
------------------
At the factory, the Lightning 365/540/730A receives a low-level
format that creates the actual tracks and sectors on the drive.

Data Transfer Rates
-------------------
Data is transferred from the disk to the read buffer at a rate up to
5.9 MB/s (47.2 Mbits/s) in burst. Data is transferred from the read
buffer to the IDE bus at a rate up to 6.0 MB/s, using programmed I/O
without IORDY, up to 11.1 MB/s using programmed I/O with IORDY, or at
a rate of up to 13.3 MB/sec using multi-word DMA.

 Reliability
 -----------
 Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF): 150,000 Power On Hours (POH),
                                    typical usage
 Component Life:                    5 years
 Preventive Maintenance (PM):       Not required
 Start/Stop:                        20,000 cycles (minimum)

The Quantum MTBF numbers represent Bell-Core TR-TSY-000332 MTBF
predictions and represent the minimum MTBF that Quantum or a
customer would expect from the drive.

Error Detection and Correction
------------------------------
As disk drive areal densities increase, obtaining extremely low error
rate requires a new generation of soghisticated error-correction
codes. Quantum Lightning 365/540/730A series hard disk drives
implement 112-bit single- and double-burst Reed-Solomon error
correction techniques to reduce the uncorrectable read error rate to
less than one bit in 1 x 10(14) bits read.

When errors occur, an automatic retry and a more rigorous double-
burst correction algorithm enable the correction of any sector with
two burst of three incorrect bytes each or up to six multiple random
one-byte burst errors. In addition to these advanced error correction
capabilities, the drive's additional cross-checking code and
algorithm double checks the main ECC correction to greatly reduce the
probability of miscorrection.

Automatic Actuator Lock
-----------------------
To ensure data integrity and prevent damage during shipment, all
Lightning Series hard disk drives feature a dedicated landing zone
and Quantum's patented AIRLOCK. AIRLOCK, locks the headstack in the
landing zone. It consists of an airvane mounted near the perimeter of
the disk stack and a locking arm that restrains the actuator arm
assembly.

When DC power is applied to the motor and the disk stack rotates, the
rotation generates an airflow on the surface of the disk. As the flow
of air across the airvane increases with disk ratation, the locking
arm pivots away from the actuator arm, enabling the headstack to move
out of the landing zone. When DC power is removed from the motor, a
return mechanism automatically pulls the actuator into the landing
zone, where the AIRLOCK holds it in place.

Disk Caching
------------
The Lightning 365/540/730A hard disk drive incorporates DisCache, a
96K disk cache, to enhance drive performance. This integrated feature
is user-programmable and can significantly improve system throughput.
Read and write caching can be enabled or disabled by using the SET
CONIGURATION command.

Defect Management
------------------
The Lightning 365AT allocate one sector per cylinder as a spare, and
the Lightning 730AT allocates two sectors per cylinder as spares. In
the factory, the media is scanned for defects. If a sector on a
cylinder is found to be defective, the address of the sector is added
to the drive's defect list. Sectors located physically subsequent
to the defective sector are assigned logical block addresses such
that a sequential ordering of logical blocks maintained. This inline
sparing technique is employed in an attempt to eliminate slow data
transfer that would result from a single defective sector on a
cylinder.

If more than one sector is found defective on a cylinder, the inline
sparing technique is applied to the first sector only. The remaining
defective sectors are replaced with the nearest available spare
sectors on nearby cylinders. Such an assignment of additional re-
placement sectors from nearby sectors rather than having a central
pool of spare sectors is an attempt to minimize the motion of the
actuator and head that otherwise would be needed to find a replace-
ment sector. The result is minimal reduction of data throughput.

General

QUANTUM ATA TIPS

Comparing the Fast ATA and Enhanced IDE Disk Drive Interfaces
-------------------------------------------------------------
Why are Fast ATA and Fast ATA-2 Important?
Faster data transfer rates are important because a computer is
only as fast as its slowest component. Today's 486, Pentium, and
PowerPC-based computers offer processor speeds many times faster
than only two years ago. Bus speeds have also increased with the
inclusion of 32-bit VL and PCI local buses, which have a maximum
data transfer rate of 132 MB/second.

Faster buses mean that data can be transferred from the storage
device to the host at greater speeds. Fast ATA and Fast ATA-2 allow
disk drives to store and access this data faster, thus enhancing the
other high-speed components in the system and removing the
bottleneck associated with older ATA/IDE drives. In short, Fast
ATA helps bring very high performance to desktop PC systems.

In addition, when compared to SCSI, Fast ATA is the least expensive
way to achieve faster disk drive data transfer rates and higher
system performance. The implementation of Fast ATA through system
BIOS provides performance without incremental hardware co sts.
Older systems can support Fast ATA using an inexpensive host
adapter.

Fast ATA and Fast ATA-2 are easy to implement in either VL or PCI
local bus systems. The hardware connection can be made using a
standard 40-pin ATA ribbon cable from the drive to the host
adapter. Direct connection to the motherboard further eases
integration when provided by the motherboard supplier.

Once connected, the high data transfer capabilities of Fast ATA can
be enabled through the data transfer options found in most CMOS BIOS
setup tables. Newer versions of BIOS provide automatic configuration
for Fast ATA drives.

Fast ATA can improve efficiency by allowing more work to be
completed in less time because the computer moves data faster.
Graphic, multimedia, and audio/visual software users will benefit
most because the speed of those applications, which work with large
blocks of data, are transfer-rate dependent.

The Fast ATA and Enhanced IDE interfaces both use the local bus to
speed data transfer rates. Enhanced IDE also uses the same PIO modes
as Fast ATA, although a data transfer rate equal to the PIO mode 4
rate has not been announced for Enhanced IDE. The major differences
between Fast ATA and Enhanced IDE are that the latter includes
three distinct features in addition to fast data transfer rates.
The additional features of Enhanced IDE are as follows:

High-capacity addressing of ATA hard drives over 528 MB -
a BIOS and device driver function.

Dual ATA host adapters supporting up to four hard disk drives per
computer system - a function of BIOS, operating system, and host
adapter, not the drive.

Support for non-hard disk drive peripherals such as CD-ROMs -
a function of BIOS and the operating system, not the drive

Each of these features supports improved functionality at a system
level, a positive development for the industry and end users.
However, support for all three features requires an extremely high
degree of integration and revisions to operating systems and hard-
ware, in addition to BIOS changes. Specific support is required not
only for the storage peripherals but also for host adapters, core
logic, the system bus, BIOS, and operating systems - virtually every
major block of PC architecture.

There is no central industry-supported standard that controls the
features of Enhanced IDE. With no standard, some products sold as
"Enhanced" may provide only one of the three features of Enhanced
IDE. For example, fast data transfer rate support is be coming
standard on mid-range and high-end local bus systems. This single
feature could satisfy the users immediate requirements without the
need for the other features of Enhanced IDE.

In the future, if the same system is upgraded to add the remaining
features of Enhanced IDE, users may be forced to purchase an Enhanced
IDE package that contains a feature already installed. This could
result in unnecessary costs, integration conflicts, and in-
compatibility with original factory implementations.

Fast ATA, on the other hand, represents only the fast data transfer
rates for ATA hard drives (support for PIO mode 3 or 4 and DMA mode
1 or 2). Fast ATA and Fast ATA-2 data transfer rates can be easily
achieved when the system BIOS and hard drive suppo rt the PIO and
DMA protocols.

BIOS that supports Fast ATA does not necessarily support high-
capacity addressing, dual host adapters or non-hard drive
peripherals. But these features are being introduced independently
by system manufacturers in order to compete in the PC marketplace.

All of Quantum's disk drives designed for PCs now support Fast ATA,
and new products with Fast ATA support will be introduced in early
1995. The drives are also fully backward compatible with older ATA/
IDE (non-Fast ATA) BIOS.

The Quantum drives support both the Extended CHS (Cylinder Head
Sector) and LBA (Logical Block Address) addressing methods in
overcoming the 528 MB DOS capacity barrier. Quantum drives can also
be used with dual host adapters.

Finally, there are no incompatibilities with Quantum hard drives
that would prevent computer systems from supporting non-hard drive
peripherals.

Quantum drives that support Fast ATA include the following families:

Quantum ProDrive LPS 170/210/340/420
Quantum ProDrive LPS 270/540
Quantum Maverick 270/540
Quantum Lightning 365/540/730
Quantum Daytona 127/170/256/341/514

Fast ATA and Fast ATA-2 are important technologies that can take
advantage of the performance provided by the latest high-speed
microprocessors and bus architectures. The high-speed interfaces
are based on industry standard specifications and are the least
expensive way to achieve faster disk drive data transfer rates.
Fast ATA is not a group of features that requires an extremely
high level of integration, and only represents the fast data transfer
rates for ATA hard drives (PIO mode 3 or 4 and DMA mode 1 or 2).
=====================================================================













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