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Hard Drive: QUANTUM: EMPIRE 540 S 540MB 3.5"/SL SCSI3 FAST

E M P I R E   5 4 0   S    QUANTUM
NO MORE PRODUCED                                      Native|  Translation
Form                 3.5"/SLIMLINE         Cylinders    2874|     |     |
Capacity form/unform   540/  616 MB        Heads           4|     |     |
Seek time   / track   9.5/ 1.8 ms          Sector/track     |     |     |
Controller           SCSI3 SI/FA           Precompensation
Cache/Buffer           512 KB LOOK-AHEAD   Landing Zone
Data transfer rate          MB/S int       Bytes/Sector      512
                     10.000 MB/S ext SYNC
Recording method     RLL 1/7                        operating  | non-operating
Supply voltage     5/12 V       Temperature *C           55    |    -40 75
Power: sleep              W     Humidity     %         5 95    |      5 95
       standby            W     Altitude    km    -0.061  3.000| -0.305 12.000
       idle           6.0 W     Shock        g        10       |     60
       seek           7.3 W     Rotation   RPM      5400
       read/write     7.5 W     Acoustic   dBA        35
       spin-up            W     ECC        Bit   112,REED SOLOMON
                                MTBF         h     500000
                                Warranty Month        60
Lift/Lock/Park     YES          Certificates     CSA,FCC,TUV,UL1950,VDE


QUANTUM EMPIRE 540/1080S PRODUCT MANUAL 81-103983-01/03 1993/1994

  |                                 +++++++++++++           |XX J1
  |                                 +++++++++++++JP1        |XX
  |                                                      F1+|XX
  |                                                       |||XX I
  |   AUGUST 1993                                         ++|XX N
  |                                                         |XX T
  |                                                     J13+|XX E
  |                                                       ++|XX R
  |                                                         |XX F
  |                                                         |XX A
  |                                                         |XX C
  |                                                         |XX E
  |                                                         |X1
  ++LED                                                     |
  ++                                                        |XX J3
  |                                                         |XX Power
  +---------------------------------------------------------+  1

  |                                 ++++++++++++          ++|XX J1
  |                                 ++++++++++++J9        |||XX
  |                                                       |||XX
  |                                                       |||XX I
  |   JUNE 1994                                           ++|XX N
  |                                                     xxJ13XX T
  |                                                     xxTE|XX E
  |                                                         |XX R
  |                                                       ++|XX F
  |    J12                                                |||XX A
  |+-+ Alternate                                     RExx |||XX C
  || | Address                                            |||XX E
  || | Connector                                          ++|X1
  |1-+                                                      |
  ++J5                                                      |XX J3
  1+LED                                                     |XX Power
  +---------------------------------------------------------+  1


QUANTUM EMPIRE 1080/540S PRODUCT MANUAL 81-103983-01/03 1993/1994

Jumper Setting

x = Jumper set at factory

     AUGUST 1993
                  +-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+A0-+-+-A2     |XX J1
                  |x|x| |x| |x| | | | | | |  JP1 |XX
                  +-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+      |XX
                   | |   | | | | |   +-+-+       |XX
 (Factory    I/O---+ |   | | | | |     + SCSI ID
  RESERVED)  INT ----+   | | | | +------ WS
                         | | | +-------- EP
                         | | +---------- PF (Factory RESERVED)
                         | +------------ TE
                         +-------------- SS (Factory RESERVED)


     JUNE 1994
                  +-+-+ +-+-+-+-+A0-+-+-A2     |XX J1
                  |x|x| |x|x| | | | | | |  JP1 |XX
                  +-+-+ +-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+      |XX
                   | |   | | | |   +-+-+       |XX
 (Factory    I/O---+ |   | | | |     + SCSI ID
  RESERVED)  INT ----+   | | | +------ WS
                         | | +-------- EP
                         | +---------- PF (Factory RESERVED)
                         +------------ SS (Factory RESERVED)


On the Drive's PCBA, there are eight pairs of jumper pins, usually
called jumpers, that control the drive's operation. (In addition,
numerous options controlled by SCSI commands affect the operation of
the drive.) Four of these jumper pins, PF, SS, INT, and I/O, are re-
served for factory use. However, you might need to change some of the
other six jumpers to configure the drive properly. These user-
configurable jumpers include:

  (* RE(J2) (JUNE 1994) - ROM enable)
   * TE       - Termination Enable Jumper
   * EP       - Enable Parity Jumper
   * WS       - Wait/Spin Jumper
   * A2,A1,A0 - SCSI-Bus Identification Jumpers
   * J13      - SCSI Termination Power Jumper

When you change any jumper setting but J13, the new setting is in
effect the next time the drive is powered on. J13 immediately affects
the SCSI terminator power source.

  | Jumper  | Setting   | Description                                |
  |   RE(J2)| OPEN   x  | Firmware is executed from FLASH memory     |
  |JUNE 1994| CLOSED    | Firmware is executed from an internal      |
  |         |           | microprocessor ROM                         |
  |   TE    | OPEN      | Termination Disabled                       |
  |         | CLOSED x  | Termination Enabled                        |
  |   EP    | CLOSED x  | Parity checking enabled                    |
  |         | OPEN      | Parity checking disabled                   |
  |   WS    | OPEN   x  | Wait/Spin disabled                         |
  |         | CLOSED    | Wait/Spin enabled                          |
  | A2,A1,A0|    -      | These jumpers are used in combination to   |
  |         |           | determine the drive's SCSI ID.             |
  |   J13   | CLOSED x  | SCSI terminator power supplied by the host |
  |         | OPEN      | SCSI terminator power supplied by the drive|

JUNE 1994 RE(J2) ROM Enable Jumper
The ROM Enable jumper determines the drive code execution mode. When
RE is off (default), the drive firmware is executed from FLASH
memory. When the drive is shipped with RE ON, the firmware is
executed from an internal microprocessor ROM.

TE Termination Enable Jumper
One of the requirements of the SCSI bus is that it be terminated with
proper termination resistors. If more than one hard disk device is
connected to the host, the last one must be terminated. The TE
(Termination Enable) jumper, when installed, connects terminating
resistors to the SCSI bus. With the TE jumper off, no resistors are

EP Enable Parity Jumper
The Enable Parity (EP) jumper controls parity checking across the
SCSI bus. With parity checking enabled, the drive performs parity
checking. With parity checking disabled, the drive continues to
generate parity information, but not perform parity checking.

At the factory Quantum configures the Empire 540/1080S hard disk
drive with parity enables; that is, with a jumper installed across
the pins labeled EP. To disable parity checking, remove the jumper
from the EP pins.

WS Wait/Spin Jumper
With the Wait/Spin (WS) jumper disabled, at a power on or reset, the
drive motor starts to spin automatically, and the drive prepares
itself to perform read or write operations without the need for a
start command. At a power or reset, with the Wait/Spin jumper
enabled, the host must send a START/STOP UNIT command to activate the
drive motor for read or write operations. In addition, with the W/S
jumper enabled, the drive performs power sequencing to prevent an
overload of the host's power supply due to simultaneous, peak start-
up current demands from multiple devices.

At the factory, Quantum configures the Empire 540/1080S hard disk
drive with the Wait/spin jumper disabled; that is, without a jumper
installed across the pins labeled WS. To enable the Wait/spin jumper,
install a jumper across the WS pins.

A2/A1/A0 SCSI-Bus Device Identification
Used in combination, the jumper settings across A2, A1, and A0 de-
termine the Empire 540/1080S hard disk drive's SCSI-bus device
identification (SCSI ID). By default, Quantum configures the drive
with a SCSI ID of six; that is, with jumpers installed across the
pins labeled A2 and A1, and no jumper installed across the pins
labeled A0.

   | SCSI ID  |        Jumpers        |
   |          |  A2   |  A1   |  A0   |
   |    0     | OPEN  | OPEN  | OPEN  |
   |    1     | OPEN  | OPEN  | CLOSED|
   |    2     | OPEN  | CLOSED| OPEN  |
   |    3     | OPEN  | CLOSED| CLOSED|
   |    4     | CLOSED| OPEN  | OPEN  |
   |    5     | CLOSED| OPEN  | CLOSED|
   |x   6     | CLOSED| CLOSED| OPEN  |
   |    7     | CLOSED| CLOSED| CLOSED|
 The SCSI bus supports up to eigth devices, including the host system.
 A device's identification number determines its priority and must be
 unique in the system.

JUNE 1994 J12 Alternate Address Connector
When external SCSI ID addressing is used, all jumpers installed
across the pins labeled A2, A1, and A0 at J9 must be removed.

       J12 Pin Assignment
      |PIN| Power Line  |
      |   | Designation |
      | 1 | Ground      |
      | 2 | A2          |
      | 3 | A1          |
      | 4 | A0          |
      | 5 | N/C         |


QUANTUM EMPIRE 540/1080S PRODUCT MANUAL 81-103983-01/03 1993/1994

Notes on installation

The mounting holes on the Empire 540/1080S hard disk drive allow the
drive to be mounted in any orientation.

Drive mounting orientation, clearance, and ventilation requirements
are described in the following subsections. For mounting, #6-32 UNC
screws are recommended. To avoid stripping the mounting-hole threads,
the maximum torque applied to the screws must not exceed 8 inch-

The printed-circuit board assembly (PCBA) is very close to the
mounting holes. Clearance from the drive to any other surface -
except mounting surfaces - must be 2.6 millimeters (0.10 inches)
minimum. The specified screw length allows full use of the mounting-
hole threads, while avoiding damaging or placing unwanted stress on
the PCB.

The Empire 540/1080S hard disk drives operates without a cooling fan,
provided the ambient air temperature does not exceed 131*F (55*C).

 J3 DC Power Connector
 The drive's DC power connector (J3) is mounted on the back edge of
 the Printed-Circuit Board (PCB).
   |4  3  2  1|

Recommended connectors and their numbers:

4-pin connector: AMP P/N 1-480424-0 or equivalent

Loose-piece contacts: AMP P/N 60619-1 or equivalent (20-14 ga.)

Strip contacts: AMP P/N 61117-1 or equivalent (20-14 ga.)

  pin 1    +12 VDC
  pin 2    +12 Volts Return (Ground)
  pin 3    + 5 Volts Return (Ground)
  pin 4    + 5 VDC

Labels indicate the pin numbers on the connector. Pins 2 and 3
(ground returns) are connected on the drive.

J5 LED Connector
The drive's LED connector is mounted on the back edge of the PCB. The
recommended header connector includes:

Connector housing: MOLEX P/N 51021-0200 or equivalent

Contact Pins: MOLEX P/N 50079-8000 or equivalent

 Pin Assignments:
 Pin 2 +5V

J12 Alternate Address Connector (JUNE 1994) (50-Pin)
The drive's Alternate Address Connector is mounted on the back edge
of the PCB. The recommended header connector includes:

Berg Electronics

- Connector housing P/N 51021-0500 or equivalent

- Contact Pins P/N 50679-8000 (26 to 30 AWG) or equivalent

J1 SCSI Connector 50-PIN
The SCSI cable connector (J1) on the Empire 540/1080S hard disk drive
is a 50-pin universal header. A key slot on the header prevents the
incorrect installation of the header connector on the SCSI cable. To
prevent the header connector on the SCSI cable from being plugged in
backwards, use only a keyed header connector.

Recommended header connectors and their part numbers:

50-pin connector (base part) AMP P/N 1-746195-2, or equivalent

50-pin connector strain relief AMP P/N 1-499508-2 or equivalent

    |                                        |
    |                                        |
    | +-----J1-SCSI----------------Power---+ |
    | |+-------------------------++4-3-2-1+| |
    | ||oooooooooooooooooooooooo1||O O O O|| |
    | ||ooooooooooooooooooooooooo||       || |
    | |+-Interface-Connector-----++--J3---+| |

J1 SCSI Interface Connector 68-PIN
The recommended header connector for the 68-pin SCSI connector

- Connector AMP P/N 786090-7 or equivalent

J1 Interface Connector 80-PIN
The recommended header connector for the 80-pin SCSI connector

 - Connector  AMP P/N 2-557101-1 Right Angle (PCB)
              AMP P/N 2-557103-1 Straight (PCB)

The Empire 540/1080S hard disk drive operates from two supply

   * +12V - 7%
   * + 5V   5%

 The allowable ripple and noise for each voltage is 200 mV peak-to-
 peak for the +12 Vdc supply and 100 mV peak-to-peak for the +5 Vdc

 Power Sequencing
 You can apply the power in any order or manner, or short or open
 either the power or power-return line with no loss of data or damage
 to the disk drive. However, data might be lost in the sector being
 written at the time of power loss. The drive can withstand transient
 voltages of +10% to -100% from nominal while powering up or down.

When cycling power, a wait period of 15-20 seconds must be allowed
to stop the spindle motor completely before power is restored.

Air Filter
Empire hard disk drives are Winchster-type drives. The heads fly very
close to the media surface, at a nominal flying height of 0.3
microinches. Therefore, it is essential that the air circulating
within the drive be kept free of paticles. Quantum assembles the
drive in a Class-100, purified-air environment, sealing the drive
mechanism under a metal cover. When the drive is in use, the rotation
of the disks forces the air inside the drive through an internal

Disk Caching
The Empire 540/1080S hard disk drive incorporates DisCache, a 512K
disk cache, to enhance drive performance. This integrated feature can
significantly improve system throughput. Read and write caching can
be enabled or disabled using the MODE SELECT command.

  | Operating Mode  | Measured Noise | Distance |
  | Idle On Track   | 35 dBA (mean)  | (1 m)    |
  |                 | 38 dBA (max.)  | 39.4 in  |
  | Seeking  Random |      TBD       | 39.4 in  |
  |                 |                | (1 m)    |

Automatic Actuator Lock
To ensure data integrity and prevent damage during shipment, the
Empire 540/1080S uses a dedicated landing zone and Quantum's patented
AIRLOCK. The AIRLOCK holds the headstack in the landing zone whenever
the disks are not rotating. It consists of an air vane mounted near
the perimeter of the disk stack and a locking arm that restrains the
actuator arm assembly.

When power is applied to the motor and the disk stack rotates, the
rotation generates an airflow on the surface of the disk. As the flow
of air across the air vane increases with disk rotation, the locking
arm pivots away from the actuator arm, enabling the headstack to move
out of the landing. When DC power is removed from the motor, an
electric return mechanism automatically pulls the actuator into the
landing zone, where the AIRLOCK holds it in place.

Microcomputer/DSP Interface
The microcomputer and DSP operate in a master/slave relationship. The
microcomputer is the master, and is able to read any location in the
DSP's data or program memory, and can write to any RAM-based data or
programm memory locations. A single exchange, which can occur once
per control interval (twice per servo sample) involves either a read
or a write of a single DSP memory location. The DSP code is
structured such that a single write can initiate a seek.


QUANTUM EMPIRE 540/1080S PRODUCT MANUAL 81-103983-01/03 1993/1994

Product Overview
Quantum's Empire 540/1080S hard disk drives are part of a family
of high-performance, 1-inch-high, hard disk drives manufactured to
meet the highest product quality standards. Empire hard disk drives
use nonremovable, 3 -inch hard disks.

The Empire 540/1080S hard disk drives feature an embedded SCSI drive
controller and use SCSI commands. The drive manages media defects
and error recovery internally, so these operations are transparent
to the user.

Formatted Capacity
At the factory, the Empire 540/1080S receives a low-level format that
creates the actual tracks and sectors on the drive.

Track Formatting
The Empire 540/1080S hard disk drive is shipped from the factory with
all of the physical sector addresses prewritten on the surface of the
disk. As a result, the number of bytes per sector and the number of
sectors per track are not selectable by the user.

 Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF): 500,000 Power On Hours (POH),
                                    typical usage

Preventive Maintenance (PM): None

Mean Time To Repair (MTTR): 30 minutes

Start/Stop: 20,000 cycles (minimum)

Defect Management
The Empire 540S allocates one sector per cylinder as a spare; the
Empire 1080S allocates four sector per cylinder as a spare.
In the factory, the media is scanned for defects. If a sector on a
cylinder is found to be defective, the address of the sector is
added to the drive's defect list. Sectors located physically
subsequent to the defective sector are assigned logical block
addresses such that a sequential ordering of logical blocks results.
This inline sparing technique is employed in an attempt to eliminate
slow data transfer that would result from a offline defect sparing.

If more than four sector is found defective on a cylinder, the inline
sparing technique is applied only to the first sector. The remaining
defective sectors are replaced with the nearest available spare
sectors on nearby cylinders. Such an assignment of additional
replacement sectors from nearby sectors rather than having a central
pool of spare sectors is an attempt to minimize the motion of the
actuator and head that otherwise would be needed to find a replace-
ment sector. The result is minimal reduction of data throughput.

Error Correction Code and ECC On-The-Fly
The Empire 540/1080S hard disk drive implements a 14byte, three-way
interleaved Reed-Solomom error detection and correction algorithm.
Single burst errors of up to to 24 bits within one sector can be
corrected "on-the-fly", in real time as they occur, allowing a high
degree of data integrity with no impact to the drive's performance.

The drive does not need to re-read sector on the next disk revolu-
tion or apply ECC for those errors that are corrected on-the-fly.
Errors corrected in this manner are invisible to the host system. The
drive does not report a recovered error unless it needs more than two
disk revolutions to correct the error.

When errors cannot be corrected on-the-fly, an automatic retry and a
more rigorous double burts error correction algorithm enable the
correction of any sector with two burst of three incorrect bytes
each. In addition to this error correction capability, the drive's
implementation of an additional cross-checking code and algorithm
double checks the main ECC correction and greatly improves the
probability of miscorrection.

 Seek Times
   |Times                  | Typical   | Nominal   | Maximum    |
   |msec.                  | Nominal   | Condition | Worst-Case |
   |Single Track Seek      |    1.8    |     3     |    3.5     |
   |Average Seek           |    9.5    |    11     |   12       |
   |1/3-Stroke Seek        |   11      |    13     |    TBD     |
   |Full-Stroke Seek       |   19      |    25     |   27       |
   |Average Write          |   11      |    12.5   |    TBD     |
   |Average Rotational     |           |           |            |
   |Latency                |    5.56   |     5.56  |      5.56  |
   |Sequential Head Switch |   TBD     |    TBD    |      3     |

Spindle Motor
The Empire 540/1080S spindle motor is a three-phase motor and is
responsible for spinning the disks at a rotational speed 5400 0.3%.

The spindle motor is Y-wound, with the center tap (neutral) brought
out. The motor contains eight poles and operates as a three-phase

Hardware Requirements
Empire 540/1080S hard disk drives are compatible with host computers
and controllers that provide a SCSI-2 or SCSI-3 interface.

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