This article is from the CD-Recordable FAQ, by Andy McFadden (firstname.lastname@example.org) with numerous contributions by others.
Taiyo Yuden made the first "green" CDs. They are now manufactured by TDK,
Ricoh, Kodak, and probably several others as well.
Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals (MTC) made the first "gold" CDs. They are now
manufactured by Kodak and possibly others as well.
Verbatim made the first "silver/blue" CDs.
Most CD-R brands (e.g. Yamaha and Sony) are actually made by a handful of
major disc manufacturers. Attempting to keep track of who makes what is
a difficult proposition at best, since new manufacturing plants are being
built, and resellers can switch vendors. See section (2-33) for notes
about identifying the source of a CD-R.