This article is from the CD-Recordable FAQ, by Andy McFadden (email@example.com) with numerous contributions by others.
A quick summary of standards and commonly used identifiers:
Red Book = physical format for audio CDs (a/k/a CD-DA)
Yellow Book = physical format for data CDs
Green Book = physical format for CD-i
Orange Book = physical format for recordable CDs
Part I = CD-MO (Magneto-Optical)
Part II = CD-WO (Write-Once; includes "hybrid" spec for PhotoCD)
Part III = CD-RW (ReWritable; originally called CD-E)
White Book = format for VideoCD (often written "VCD")
Blue Book = CD Extra (occasionally used to refer to LaserDisc format)
CD Extra = a two-session CD, 1st is CD-DA, 2nd is data (a/k/a CD Plus)
MODE-1 = standard 2048-byte Yellow Book sectors, with error correction
MODE-2 = 2336-byte sectors, usually used for CD-ROM/XA
CD-ROM/XA = eXtended Architecture; CD-ROM/XA MODE-2 defines two forms:
FORM-1 = 2048 bytes of data, with error correction, for data
FORM-2 = 2324 bytes of data, no ecc, for audio/video
ISO-9660 = file layout standard (evolved from High Sierra format)
Rock Ridge = extensions allowing long filenames and UNIX-style symlinks
CD-RFS = Sony's incremental packet-writing filesystem
CD-UDF = industry-standard incremental packet-writing filesystem
CD-Text = Philips' std for encoding disc and track data on audio CDs
CD-ROM/XA is an extension to the Yellow Book Mode 2 standard. It was
intended as a bridge between CD-ROM and CD-i (Green Book).
See http://www.licensing.philips.com/ if you want to buy copies of
the standards. They're not cheap! You can download some of them from
http://www.ecma-international.org/. ECMA-119 describes ISO-9660, and
ECMA-130 sounds a lot like "yellow book" if you say it slowly.
For SVCD, see http://www.iki.fi/znark/video/svcd/overview/. The discs
are a modified White Book format, using a 2x player and variable bit rate
MPEG-2 instead of MPEG-1 at 1x like VCD.
For HDCD, see http://www.hdcd.com/. The discs are in Red Book format,
but the low bit of the audio has additional information encoded in it.
They sound good on a standard CD player, and better on an HDCD player.
SACD isn't really a CD format. It can have a Red Book compliant layer
that is read by standard CD players, but to get the high-fidelity benefits
you need a special player.