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002- Where can I find out about Apple II programming?


This article is from the Apple II Programming FAQ, by Jeff Hurlburt with numerous contributions by others.

002- Where can I find out about Apple II programming?

    All Apple II's come with some version of BASIC installed in-ROM on the
motherboard. The original Apple II's have Integer BASIC. Starting with
the II+ model, all Apple II's have floating-point Applesoft
in-ROM. Owners of early Apple II's can load in Applesoft or plug in a
card with Applesoft ROMs.

All Apple II's include a "monitor" program in ROM. Entering CALL-151
from the BASIC prompt puts you 'in' the monitor. Here you can view and
change values in key memory locations and enter machine language

Besides these built-in languages, many others can be loaded in.

There are several good places on the net to find out about

Apple II and BASIC programming books on-line
http://www.1000bit.net/support/manuali/manuali.asphttp://www.atariarchives.org/http://apple2.callapple.org/manuals/index.htmlhttp://www.apple-iigs.info/home.htm (mostly English, some French)
http://www3.telus.net/waynes/http://linux.cis.monroeccc.edu/~paulrsm/6502/http://www.chez.com/apple1/Apple2cDskArchive/index.htm (in French).

Apple II comp.sys.apple2 newsgroup
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) distributed worldwide via USENET;
available as html and Text:

Apple II comp.sys.apple2.programmer newsgroup
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) distributed worldwide via USENET;
available as html and Text:

Apple II DOS and ProDOS mini manual

Apple II game authoring links

Apple II Textfiles

Applesoft BASIC FAQs on 'Another Computer Museum


Ground: /MiscInfo/Applesoft/
Ground: /MiscInfo/Programming/
Ground: /apple8/Beagle.Oldies/
Ground: /MiscInfo/

GS WorldView

Terry Allen's Home of the Apple II- manual reprints, programming info

LandSnail Apple II References- Applesoft, Integer BASIC, DOS 3.3,
and ProDOS commands with brief descriptions.

Magazine and on-line 'zine issues and back issues (see Publishers)

Major Apple II Sites- many Apple II links

Niel Parker's Home Page- Apple IIgs progamming information

Paul Schlyter's Apple II Stuff- compilers, S-C assemblers, utilities,
Assembly Line disks, ...

Ron Kneusel's 6502 page- 6502 info, assem tutorials, software

The Fridge- 6502 info, tutorials, assembly language routines
http://www.ffd2.com/fridge/www.6502.org- 6502 info, tutorials, assembly language routines

Be sure to keep a look out for Apple II books, charts, software
packages, etc. when you visit used book stores, swap meets, school
sales, ..., or peruse comp.sys.apple2 marketplace.

Applesoft BASIC

The #1 Applesoft information source is the Basic Programming Reference
Manual from Apple. Here are some other good Applesoft materials to
look for ...

Apple II User's Guide by Poole, Martin, and Cook
  Note: Third Edition (Apple II User's Guide for APPLE II Plus and
  APPLE IIe) is completely revised to include ProDOS coverage
Apple II Reference Manual from Apple Peeks, Pokes, and monitor
routines info (see below) DOS & ProDOS books (see below)

GSoft BASIC (New IIgs BASIC from Byte Works)

Learning to Program in GSoft BASIC by Mike Westerfield (Byte Works)

Assembly Language and Machine Language Coding

Machine coding is when you enter 6502 (65816, ...) instructions
directly-- as in going to the Apple II monitor (CALL-151) and typing
in hexadecimal codes at specific addresses, like 300:A9 7F
(instruction to load Accumulator with the value $7F entered at address

Assembly coding substitutes easy-to-remember text for the numeric
codes-- as in LDA#7F to load the Accumulator with the value
$7F. Assembly coding is done using assembler software (like Merlin or
Orca/M). A major advantage of assembly coding is that routines and
other places in your program can be tagged with text labels and
referenced this way in your program. The assembler software figures
out things like Jump addresses.

Assembly Lines: The Book by Roger Wagner
Programming Manual (for 6502 from Mos Technology, 1976)
What's Where in the Apple II? by William F. Luebbert
Beagle Bros "Peeks, Pokes, and Pointers" (poster)
Programming the 65816 Including the 6502, 65C02, and 65802
   by David Eyes and Ron Lichty
65816/65802 Assembly Language Programming by Michael Fischer

Other Languages

Apple Pascal: a hands-on approach by Luehrmann & Peckham
Learning to Program in C by Mike Westerfield (Byte Works)
Learning to Program in Pascal by Mike Westerfield (Byte Works)
Logo Plus manual from Terrapin
HyperCard IIGS Script Language Guide (Apple/ Addison-Wesley)

DOS, ProDOS, and GS/OS

The DOS Manual from Apple
Beneath Apple DOS by Worth & Lechner
Beneath Apple ProDOS by Worth & Lechner
Supplement to Beneath Apple ProDOS For ProDOS8 (v1.2,1.3)  by Worth & Lechner
ProDOS Inside and Out by Doms and Weishaar
ProDOS Technical Reference Manual (Apple/ Addison-Wesley)
Apple IIGS GS/OS Technical Reference (Apple/ Addison-Wesley)
Apple IIGS GS/OS Device Driver Reference (Apple/ Addison-Wesley)
Apple IIGS System 6 User's Reference (Apple/ Addison-Wesley)
The System 6 Book by Jerry Kindal (Quality Computers)
Apple IIGS ProDOS 8 Reference (Apple/ Addison-Wesley)
Apple IIGS ProDOS 16 Reference (Apple/ Addison-Wesley)
Apple IIGS Toolbox Reference v. 1-3 (Apple/ Addison-Wesley)
Exploring Apple GS/OS and ProDOS 8 by Gary Little
Toolbox Programming in C by Mike Westerfield (Byte Works)
Toolbox Programming in Pascal by Mike Westerfield (Byte Works)

One of the best ways to learn programming is to find some old game you
like and experiment with customizing it. This works especially well
for learning Applesoft BASIC and machine language coding.

If your Apple II is a 64k IIe or later machine, be sure to get Program
Writer. It's a vintage Applesoft program editing utility for DOS 3.3
or ProDOS from Beagle which makes writing and debugging BASIC programs
much easier:

Ground: /apple8/Beagle.Oldies/

For 48k or larger II+, check out Global Program Line Editor:


--Rubywand, Terence J. Boldt, Tony Cianfaglione, Steve Sanders, Wayne
Stewart, Charles T. Turley


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