This article is from the Ethernet FAQ, by James Messer James@NetworkUptime.com with numerous contributions by others.
Some of the physical Ethernet types as defined in the 802.3
10BASE5 - 10BASE5 is the original design of the traditional
Ethernet backbone, designed to be left in place
permanently or for extended periods.
10BASE2 - 10BASE2 is the original design for a departmental or
workgroup sized Ethernet environment. It is designed to be
simple, inexpensive, and flexible as people and stations
10BROAD36 - 10BROAD36 is a seldom used Ethernet specification which
uses a physical medium similar to cable television, with
CATV-type cables, taps, connectors, and amplifiers.
1BASE5 - 1BASE5 is a specification of Ethernet that runs at 1 Mb/s
over twisted pair wiring. This physical topology uses
centralized hubs to connect the network devices.
10BASE-T - 10BASET provides Ethernet services over twisted pair
FOIRL - Fiber Optic Inter-Repeater Link - This specification of the
802.3 standard defines a standard means of connecting
Ethernet repeaters via optical fiber.
10BASE-F - 10BASE-F is a set of optical fiber medium specifications
which define connectivity between devices.
100BASE-T - 100BASE-T is a series of specifications that provides
100 megabit speeds over copper or fiber. These
topologies are often referred to as Fast Ethernet.
Gigabit Ethernet - Gigabit Ethernet provides speeds of 1000 Mb/s
over copper and fiber.