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3. Feminism and Psychology.


This article is from the Feminism References FAQ, by Cindy Tittle Moore tittle@netcom.com with numerous contributions by others.

3. Feminism and Psychology.

Benhabib, Seyla. "The Generalized and Concrete Other: The
Kohlberg-Gilligan Controversy and Moral Theory" in Kittay, Eva Feder;
Meyers, Diana T., _Women and Moral Theory_, Rowman and Littlefield,
Totowa, NJ, 1987.
Seyla Benhabib suggests that a functioning ethical system needs to
recognize both the concrete and the generalized other in order to
function. She uses the Kohlberg-Gilligan controversy as a
reference in the discussion.

Cancian, Francesca M. _Love in America: Gender and Self-Development_.
Cambridge University Press, 1987. ISBN: 0-521-39691-3 (trade paperback).
Blurb: "In the last 25 years, Americans have gained considerable
freedom in their personal lives. Relationships are now more
flexible, and self-development has become a primary goal for both
men and women. Most scholars have criticized this trend to
greater freedom, arguing that it undermines family bonds and
promotes selfishness and extreme independence...she [instead]
shows that many American couples succeed in combining
self-development with commitment, and that interdependence, not
independence, is their ideal. In interdependent relationships,
love and self-development do not conflict but reinforce each other."

Chodorow, Nancy. _The Reproduction of Mothering_. UC Press, 1978.
This is a psychoanalytic account of how boys and girls establish
different gender identities. The work focuses on the consequences
of the fact that mothering is done by women in our society. This
is an academic book, which means its by no means easy-going, and
readers who are unsympathetic to Freudian and object relations
psychology will dismiss it out of hand. Chodorow's book is really
the seminal work on "relational" vs. "instrumental" differences in
wo/men--concepts that are core to later writers like Gilligan,

Daly, Mary. _Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism_.
Beacon Press, Boston. 1978.
Includes sections titled. "American Gynecology. Gynocide by the
Holy Ghosts of Medicine and Therapy" "Nazi Medicine and American
Gynecology: A Torture Cross-Cultural Comparison."

Devor, Holly. _Gender Blending_. Indiana University Press, 1989.
ISBN. 0-253-20533-6.
Examines women who are often mistaken for men and discusses the
impact on the women and reviews their childhood. An *excellent*
book for anyone desiring to understand the differences between
gender, gender roles and gender identity.

Fransella, Fay and Kay Frost. _On Being a Woman_. Tavistock
Publications, London and New York. 1977.
A review of research on how women see themselves. Focuses on what
women have to say about themselves, rather than what others say
about them. The authors are interested in what it means to a
woman to be a women; they also make people aware of the fact that
it is uncommon to ask women what they think of themselves.
Extensive bibliography.

Gilligan, Carol. _In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and
Women's Development_. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. 1982.
Standard, well known text on different modes of moral development
between men and women. Widely cited, widely criticized.

Gilligan, Carol. "Moral Orientation and Moral development" in Kittay,
Eva Feder; Meyers, Diana T., _Women and Moral Theory_, Rowman and
Littlefield, Totowa, NJ, 1987.
The article discusses the question of relationship between the
care perspective and the rights perspective in moral development.
Gilligan also continues her research begun in
_In a Different Voice_.

Golden, Carla. "Diversity and Variability in Women's Sexual
Identities" in _Lesbian Psychologies_. Chicago: University of
Illinois Press, 1987. p. 28.

Graddol, David and Joan Swann. _Gender Voices_. B. Blackwell, Oxford
and New York. 1989.
In particular, chapter 9, Problems of Power discusses male dominance
of conversation in the classroom.

Griffin, Susan. _Woman and Nature_. 1978.
Author gives a description of the figurines on Freud's study
together with ironic comments on his interpretation of myth and
irrational "rationalism". It is a contrast of the voices of
patriarchy with the voices of women done in a dramatic, poetic

Harragan, Betty Lehan, _Games Mother Never Taught You_. Warner
Books, New York. 1987.

Haug, Frigga, ed. _Female Sexualization_. Verso, 6 Meard Street,
London W1V 3RH. 1987. ISBN: 0-86091-875-0.
Examines the way women are taught to see themselves as 'feminine'
through the investment of parts of the body with a whole range of
social and psychological significance. Originally published as
_Sexualisierung: Frauenformen 2_, 1983.

Heatherington, Laurie and Judith Crown, Heidi Wagner, and Scott
Rigby, "Toward an Understanding of Social Consequences of
`Feminine Immodesty' About Personal Achievements", _Sex Roles: A
Journal of Research_, 20 (1989) 371-380.

Heilbrun, Carolyn G.. _Toward A Recognition of Androgyny_.
A search into myth and literature to trace manifestations of
androgyny and to assess their implications for today.

Horner, Matina S., "Femininity and Successful Achievement: A Basic
Inconsistency", in Judith Bardwick, et al, eds. _Feminine Personality
and Conflict_. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1970.

Johnson, Miriam M.. _Strong Mothers, Weak Wives_. UC Press, Berkeley.
Hypothesis is that the mother's role derives from a position of
strength, while the wife's role reflects a position of weakness.
Examines socialization and societal construction within this

Kundsin, Ruth B., ed. _Women and Success: The Anatomy of
Achievement_. New York: William Morrow & Company, 1974.

Lorber, Judith and Susan A. Farrel, eds. _The Social Construction of
Gender_. SAGE publications, Newbury Park, CA. 1991.
Broad collection of writings. "Principles of Gender Construction",
"Gender Construction in Family Life", "Gender Construction in the
Workplace", "Feminist Research Strategies", "Racial Ethnic
Identity and Feminist Politics", "Deconstructing Gender."

Masters, William H. and Virginia E. Johnson. _Human Sexual Response_.
Boston, Little, Brown, 1966.
Debunked the Freudian dichotomoy of vaginal vs. clitoral

Mednick, Martha Tamara Shuch, Sandra Schwartz Tangri, and Lois Wladis
Hoffman, eds. _Women and Achievement: Social and Motivational
Analyses_. Hemisphere Publishing Corp., New York. Distributed by
Halstead Press. 1975.

Meyers, Diana T. "The Socialized Individual and individual Autonomy"
in Kittay, Eva Feder; Meyers, Diana T., _Women and Moral Theory_,
Rowman and Littlefield, Totowa, NJ, 1987.
Meyers defends the position exponents of the care perspective can
be morally autonomous.

Miller, Jean Baker, MD. _Toward a New Psychology of Women_. Second
edition. Beacon Press, Boston. 1986.
Blurb: On the tenth anniversary of the original publication of
this revolutionary book, Dr. Jean Baker Miller reflects on where
women are today, addressing both the enormous progress in some
areas and the challenges still to be met. Celebrating the
questions that have been raised and the actions women have taken,
as well as looking toward future change, Miller affirms the
strength and diversity of women.

Raymond, Janice G. _The Transsexual Empire: The Making of the
She-Male_. Beacon Press, Boston. 1979.
Subjects: Lesbians, sex roles, sex change, medicine (philosophy).

Rheingold, H. L. and K. V. Cook, "The Contents of Boys' and Girls'
Rooms as an Index of Parents' Behavior", _Child Development_, 46
(1975), 445-463.

Rich, Adrienne Cecile. _Of Woman Born: Motherhood as Experience and
Institution_. 10th anniversary ed. Norton, New York, 1986.
Original copyright 1976. A book with a fine rage against
patriarchy and ambivalence toward men, who are its most obvious
standardbearers. (Rich recounts how she thought of herself as a
fiery feminist until she went to France. When she told one woman
their that she had three sons, the response was a contemptuous
"Vous travailez pour l'armee, madame?")

Riger, Stephanie. "Epistemological Debates, Feminist Voices: Science,
Social Values, and the Study of Women," in _American Psychologist_,
June 1992.
A well-written article: Riger reviews several very important
issues pertaining to women and social science (experimental
psychology in particular). She calls for "a new vision of the
psychological study of women that construes gender as a product of
social interaction and links women's agency with the shaping power
of the sociocultural, historical, and political context." Riger
notes that an extended version of this paper will appear in
_Psychology of Women: Biological Psychology and Social
Perspectives_; that paper is "in preparation."

Schaef, Anne Wilson. _Women's Reality: An Emerging Female System in the
White Male Society_. New edition. Harper and Row, Publishers. 1985.
ISBN: 0-86683-753-1.
From blurb: "_Women's Reality_ is one of the few books that is
supportive of women's changing roles without putting men down. It
allows men and women to see each other as friends rather than
enemies...A brillian dissection of the psycho-social differences
between male and female experience."

Schaef, Ann Wilson, _The Addictive Organization_. Harper and Row,
San Francisco, 1988. ISBN 0062548417.

*Schaef, Ann Wilson, "White Male System"

Shainess, Natalie. "A Psychiatrist's View. Images of Women -
Past and Present, Overt and Obscured," 1969.
Reprinted in _Sisterhood is Powerful_ ed Robin Morgan (1970) It
references the earlier work of Karen Horney from 1926, and Clara
M. Thompson from 1942, which suggests *someone* has been asking
questions about Freudian relevance, esp. for women, for a long

Steinem, Gloria. _Revolution form Within_.
This has been panned, and probably misjudged, as a woozy exercise
in New Age thumb-sucking, but it is more about developing a good
sense of self. A good thing about this book is that it keeps
self-esteem firmly in context; she evidently recognizes that it is
difficult to feel good about oneself if one has nothing of oneself
to feel good about.

Stern, Marilyn and Katherine Hildebrandt Karraker. "Sex Stereotyping
of Infants: A Review of Gender Labeling Studies", _Sex Roles: A
Journal of Research_, 20 (1989) 501-522.

Ussher, Jane. _The Psychology of the Female Body_. Routledge, London
and New York. 1989.
Examines the role of the female body in women's identity and
experience. the way menarche, menstration, pregnancy, and
menopause affect women's lives, the ways the female body and
reproduction have been used to confine and control women, and
psychological evidence is given to refute many myths surrounding
women's bodies. Originally part of Ph.D. thesis.


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