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0. Prologue.


This article is from the Feminism References FAQ, by Cindy Tittle Moore tittle@netcom.com with numerous contributions by others.

0. Prologue.

This post contains commonly cited and/or useful references on various
topics that come up in this newsgroup. Because of the nature of these
discussions, it is helpful if you are familiar with at least some of
the materials listed under the topic. This is NOT a "You Must Read
Every Book On This List Before Participating In Soc.feminism" mandate,
but be aware that some familiarity with books on a particular topic
makes the ensuing discussion less frustrating for our regular readers
who have seen many similar discussions before.

** In particular, if you have a question along the lines of "What **
** can you tell me about <topic>?" you would do better to check the **
** sources listed here first before trying to garner explanations **
** over the newsgroup. **

This list is undergoing continual modification and I welcome
additional references for inclusion. In particular, I would like a
wide variety of feminist opinion on each topic. I would also like
your input on what "must reads" should be included under particular
topics. Most of these books focus on feminism in the US; I would love
more references to Canadian, British, European, Asian, African and
Latin American feminism. If you have any corrections to point out, by
all means, let me know if I've misspelled names or misattributed

References marked with an asterisk are incomplete entries that I was
unable to verify in the on-line catalogue. In most cases, I think
these are references to articles in magazines or books. Any help with
these would be appreciated.

Disclaimer: The presence of any particular book in here does not
necessarily reflect my views. There are often short blurbs
contributed by many people along with the references; no guarantee is
made as to their accuracy. If you wish to comment on any entry in
here, please feel free to do so.

I hope you are inspired to pick up any of these works and start reading!

1 Academia and Sciences.

1989 National Survey of Women Engineers, The Cooper Union.
Available on request from the Albert Nerken School of Engineering, 51
Astor Place, New York, NY 10003.

*See New Scientist, P. 8, 9/26/92, volume 135 for story on fighting
sexism in astronomy.

"Survey of Graduate Students", Presidential Committee on Women
Students Interests, Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1987.

"A Celebration of Women in Science," _Discover_, December 1991.
Contains eleven profiles of successful women in a wide range of
fields including Donna Cox in computer graphics. This is a great
thing for us to read, to get young women and girls to read or to
give as a gift to anyone you'd like to know about what women are

"Still a 'Chilly Climate' for Women?" _Science_, pp 1604-1606. June
21, 1991.
Discusses the situation for women in physics and astronomy. It
includes some pipeline statistics and results of a survey on the
kinds of discrimination women perceive and men notice. Summary:
blatant discrimination isn't so much a problem as a "pattern of

_Notices of the American Mathematical Society_. No. 7, Sept. 1991.
A special issue on women in mathematics. A variety of issues are

"Women and Computing", _Communications of the ACM_, ( Nov. 1990
vol. 33, no. 11.).

"Women in Science and Engineering", Sept-Oct 1991 issue of the
"American Scientist" (published by the Sigma Xi Scientific Society)
(pp. 404-419).

Abramson, Joan. _Discrimination in the Academic Profession_.
Jossey-Bass, Inc., San Francisco. 1975.

Aisenberg, Nadya and Mona Harrington. _Women in Academe: Outsiders in
the Sacred Grove_. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst. 1988.

Baum, Eleanor, "Recruiting and Graduating Women: The
Underrepresented Student", IEEE Communications Magazine,
December 1990, 47-50.

Bernstein, D, "Comfort and experience with computing: are they the
same for men and women?", SIGCSE, 23(3), 1990.

Bernstein, D, "Understanding spreadsheets: Effects of computer
training on mental model acquisition", _Proceedings of the American
Society for Information Science Conference_, 164-172, 1990.

Betz, Nancy E, "What stops women and minorities from choosing and
completing majors in science and engineering", edited transcript of a
Science and Public Policy Seminar given on June 15, 1990. Copies can
be obtained from the Federation of Behavioral, Psychological and
Cognitive Sciences, 1200 Seventeenth St., N.W., Washington, D.C.
20036. (202) 955-7758, fax no: (202) 955-7608, bitnet address: fed@gwuvm.

Bruer, John T., Jonathan R. Cole, and Harriet Zuckermann. _The Outer
Circle: Women in the Scientific Community_. W. W. Norton & Co, New
York. 1991, 351 pp.
Presents the status of women in science today, as well as the
reasons for this standing.

Brush, Stephen G. "Women in Science and Engineering", _American
Scientist_ 79, (Sep-Oct).404-419, 1991.
This is an ambitious article. In about 12 pages (not including
the list of 102 references), Stephen Brush discusses factors
relevant to young girls through senior professionals, across a
wide range of scientific disciplines.

Butcher, D. and W. Muth. "Predicting performance in an introductory
computer science course", _Communications of the ACM_, 27(11), 263-
268, 1985.

Campbell, P. and G. McCabe. "Predicting the success of freshmen in a
computer science major", _Communications of the ACM_, 27(11), 1108-
1113, 1984.

Casserly, Patricia Lund. "Helping Able Young Women Take Math and
Science Seriously in School", The College Board, New York. 1979.
Reprinted, with revisions, from Colangelo Zaffrann, ed., _New Voices
in Counseling the Gifted_. Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque,
Iowa. 1979.

Dambrot, F., M. Watkins-Malek, S. Silling, R. Marshall, and J. Garver.
"Correlates of sex differences in attitudes toward and involvement
with computers", _Journal of Vocational Behavior_, 27, 71-86, 1985.

Dijkstra, E. "On the cruelty of really teaching computer science",
_Communications of the ACM_, 32(12), 1397-1414, 1989.

Erkut, Sumru. "Exploring Sex Differences in Expectancy, Attribution,
and Academic Achievement", _Sex Roles: A Journal of Research_, 9
(1983) 217-231.

Ernest, John. "Mathematics and Sex", _The American Mathematics
Monthly_, October 1976, 83:595-615.

Ferry, Georgina and Jane Moore. "True Confessions of Women in
Science", _New Scientist_ 95 (July 1, 1982), 27-30.

Fidell, L. S. "Empirical Verification of Sex Discrimination in Hiring
Practices in Psychology", in R. K. Unger and F. L. Denmark, eds.,
_Women: Dependent or Independent Variable_ Psychological Dimensions,
New York. 1975.

Franklin, Phyllis, et al. "Sexual and Gender Harassment in the
Academy: A Guide for Faculty, Students and Administrators",
Commission on the Status of Women in the Profession, The Modern
Language Association of America, New York, NY. 1981.

Frenkel, Karen A. "Women and Computing", _Communications of the
ACM_, November 1990, 34-46.

Gerver, E. "Computers and Gender". In Forester, Tom, ed. _Computers in
the Human Context_. pp481-501. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1989. Basil
Blackwell, Oxford, 1989.

Gilbert, Lucia A., June M. Gallessich, and Sherri L. Evans. "Sex of
Faculty Role Model and Students' Self-Perceptions of Competency",
_Sex Roles: A Journal of Research_, 9 (1983) 597-607.

Gornick, Vivian. _Women in Science: 100 Journeys into the Territory_,
Touchstone, Simon & Schuster, New York. 1990.

Grinstein, Louise S. and Paul J. Campbell, eds. _Women in Mathematics.
A Bibliographic Sourcebook_. Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut.
Describes ~50 women who were prominent in mathematics. Computer
science is considered part of math since Grace Hopper and Ada
Lovelace are included. The editors wanted to give a historical
perspective of women's role in mathematics so they have only
considered women born before 1930.

Gries, David, and Dorothy Marsh. "The 1989-90 Taulbee Survey",
_Communications of the ACM_, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1992.
A survey of professors across the nation. Statistics. In
particular, addresses what the survey tells us about women in

Gries, David and Dorothy Marsh. "CS Produced 734 Ph.D.s in 1989-90;
CE Adds 173 for a Total of 907", _Computing Research News_, January
1991, 6-10.

Gross, Jane. "Female Surgeon's Quitting Touches Nerves at Medical
School", The New York Times, July 14, 1991, page 10.

Hacker, Sally L. _Doing it the hard way_. Unwin Jyman, Boston. 1990.

Hacker, Sally L. _Pleasure, power and technology_. Unwin Hyman,
Boston. 1989.

Hacker, Sally L., "Mathematization of Engineering: Limits on Women and
the Field", in Joan Rothschild, ed., _Machina ex Dea: Feminist
Perspectives on Technology_. Pergamon Press, New York. 1983. pages

Hess, Robert D. and Irene T. Miura. "Gender Differences in Enrollment
in Computer Camps and Classes", _Sex Roles: A Journal of Research_, 13
(1985) 193-203.

Hill, T., N. Smith, and M. Mann. "Role of efficacy expectations in
predicting the decision to use advanced technologies: The case of
computers", _Journal of Applied Psychology_, 72, 307-313, 1987.

Holland, Dorothy C. and Margaret A. Eisenhart. _Educated in
Romance: Woman, Achievement, and College Culture_. The
University of Chicago Press. 1990.

Homans, Hilary. "Man-made Myths: The Reality of Being a Woman
Scientist in the NHS", in Spencer, Anne and David Podmore, eds,
_In a Man's World: Essays on Women in Male dominated Professions_.
Tavistock Publications, London and New York. 1987.

Jacobus, Mary, Evelyn Fox Keller, and Sally Shuttleworth, eds.
_Body Politics: Women And The Discourses Of Science_. Routledge, NY, 1990.

Kass-Simon, G. and P. Farnes, eds. _Women of Science. Righting the
Record_. Indiana University Press. 1990.
Reviewed in the March issue of IEEE Spectrum. A collection of 10
articles about women who have made important contributions to
science and technology. Unclear that a computer scientist is
included. Women mentioned in the review are Bertha Lamme, Edith
Clarke, Jenny Rosenthal, Mildred Dresselhaus, Lillian Gilbreth,
Marie Curie and Irene Curie. An encouraging aspect of these
women's lives is that many of them were married and had families.
Also includes a discussion of the differences in how men's and
women's work are remembered.

Keith, Sandra Z. and Philip Keith, eds. _Proceedings of the National
Conference on Women in Mathematics and the Sciences_. St. Cloud,
MN: St. Cloud University, 1990.

Keller, Evelyn Fox. _Reflections on Gender and Science_. Yale
University Press, New Haven, 1985.
Examines how images of sex and gender have influenced the
philosophy of knowledge and the progress of science, going back to
Plato's "Symposium".

Kelly, Alison, "Why Girls Don't Do Science", _New Scientist_, May 20, 1982.
On women's lack of participation on science. "Teachers put extra
effort into teaching boys to read to make up for any deficiency,
whether its origin is biological or social. The same could be
done to boost the spatial ability of girls if the problems were
considered equally serious." (pg 497).

Kelly, Alison, ed. _Science for Girls?_. Open University Press,
London and Philadelphia. 1987. ISBN 0-355-10294-8.

Kerr, Barbara A., Ph.D. _Smart Girls, Gifted Women_.
Ohio Psychology Press. ISBN 0-910707-07-3 (paperback, $13.95).
Why is it that so many gifted & talented girls STILL aren't
realizing their ful l potential, despite the Women's Movement?
More to the point, what exactly is it that a gifted girl needs but
society or individual circumstances may fail to provide? The
answers may surprise you. (I'm not just saying that to be arch; I
really WAS surprised at some of them.)

Kiesler, Sara, Lee Sproull, and Jacquelynne S. Eccles. "Pool Halls, Chips,
and War Games: Women in the Culture of Computing", _Psychology of
Women Quarterly_, 9 (1985) 451-462.

Koblitz, Neal, "Are Student Ratings Unfair to Women?", _Newsletter of
the Association for Women in Mathematics_, September-October 1990.

Kramer, Pamela E. and Sheila Lehman. "Mismeasuring Women: A
Critique of Research on Computer Ability and Avoidance", _Signs:
Journal of Women in Culture and Society_ 16 (1990) 158-172.

*Leveson, Nancy, "Women in Computer Science: A Report of the NSF
CISE Cross-Disciplinary Activities Advisory Committee"

Lockheed, Marlaine E. "Women, Girls, and Computers: A First Look at
the Evidence", _Sex Roles: A Journal of Research_, 13 (1985) 115-122.

Martin, Dianne, ed. "In Search of Gender-Free Paradigms for
Computer Science", NECC, Eugene, OR., 1991.

Ogozalek, Virginia Z. "A Comparison of Male and Female Computer
Science Students' Attitudes Toward Computers", SIGCSE Bulletin,
June 1989, volume 21, number 2, 8-14.

Pearl, Amy, Martha E. Pollack, Eve Riskin, Becky Thomas, Elizabeth
Wolf, and Alice Wu. "Becoming a Computer Scientist", _Communications
of the ACM_, November 1990, 47-57.

*Perry, Ruth and Lisa Greber. "Women and Computers: An

Pryor, Sally. "Thinking of Oneself as a Computer", _Leonardo_, Vol.
24, Issue 5 (1991).
A very interesting and provocative article about the basic
conflict between our gender-identity as women and our professional
identity as computer professionals.

Rossner, S. _Teaching science and health from a feminist perspective:
A practical guide_, Elmsfor, N.Y.: Pergamon Press, 1986.

Rothschild, Joan. _Machina Ex Dea: Feminist Perspectives on
Technology_. Pergamon Press. 1983.

Rothschild, Joan. _Teaching Technology From a Feminist Perspective: A
Practical Guide_. Pergamon Press, New York. 1988.

Sanders, Jo Shuchat and Antonia Stone (for the Women's Action
Alliance). _The Neuter Computer_. Neal-Schuman Publishers, New York.
1986. ISBN. 1-555-70006-3 (paper).

Spertus, Ellen. _Why Are There So Few Female Computer Scientists?_,
An in-depth examination of the many reasons there is a dearth of
women in computer science. Available via ftp from ftp.ai.mit.edu
under pub/users/ellens/womcs*.ps in postscript format. For
information on receiving the bound version of the report (which is
$8 + shipping costs), contact publications@ai.mit.edu with your
mailing address (to compute shipping costs) and a request for AI
TR 1315. A very useful, annotated bibliography as well.

Tidwell, Jenifer, "Hackers in the Garden: A Case Study of Women in
Computer Engineering", unpublished, 1990.

Tijdens, K., M. Jennings, I. Wagner, & M. Weggelaar, "Women, Work,
and Computerization: Forming New Alliances", Amsterdam: North-
Holland, 1989.

Tobias, Sheila. "They're Not Dumb, They're Different. Stalking the
Second Tier."
Can be purchased from Science News Books, 1719 N St., NW,
Washington, DC 20036. The first copy is $2 and additional copies
are $.50 each.

Turkle, Sherry and Seymour Papert, "Epistemological Pluralism: Styles
and Voices within the Computer Culture", Signs: Journal of Women
in Culture and Society, 16 (1990), 128-157.

Turkle, Sherry, "The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit",
New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984.

Van Nostrand, Catharine Herr, "Gender-Responsible Leadership: Do
Your Teaching Methods Empower Women?", pages 186-191 Sage
Publications, Inc., in Spring 1991. Direct inquiries, with a SASE, to the
author at: 36854 Winnebago Road, St. Cloud, MN 56303.

Widnall, Sheila E. "AAAS Presidential Lecture: Voices from the
Pipeline", _Science_ 241 (September 30, 1988), 1740-1745.

*Widnall, Sheila, "Voices from the Pipeline"

Wilson, Meg, ed. _OPTIONS for Girls. A Door to the Future_.
Foundation for Women's Resources.
The Anthology has been developed over the past 6 years. The best
1000 articles, books and studies [from an earlier project] were
reviewed and pared down to a readable set of articles that described
the problem of why girls don't take more science and math AND that
describe strategies to overcome this problem. Between citations
within articles and the supplemental reading list the anthology also
presents a substantial bibliography. The target audience includes
parents, teachers, school board members, community leaders and girls
themselves. The anthology is $22 (includes shipping and handling,
no tax assessed). Write to: Pro-Ed, 8700 Shoal Creek Blvd, Austin,
TX 78758, attn. Linda Brown. Discounts available for large orders.

Wolpert, Lewis and Alison Richards. _A Passion for Science_. Oxford
University Press, Oxford. 1988.

Zappert, Laraine T. and Kendyll Stansbury, "A Comparative Analysis
of Men and Women in Graduate Programs in Science, Engineering and
Medicine at Stanford University", Working Papers, Institute for
Research on Women and Gender, Stanford University, 1985.
Single copies are available at no cost from the Institute for
Research on Women and Gender, Stanford, University (415-723-1994).


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