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08 What were the populations of the states at the outbreak of the war? (U.S. Civil War: The beginning)




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This article is from the U.S. Civil War FAQ, by Justin M. Sanders jsanders@jaguar1.usouthal.edu with numerous contributions by others.

08 What were the populations of the states at the outbreak of the war? (U.S. Civil War: The beginning)

The following statistics are from J.C.G. Kennedy, Supt. of Census,
_Population of the United States in 1860_ (Washington, G.P.O., 1864)

  State    White   Free Colored  Slave    Total[1]   Military[2]
    AL    526,271      2,690    435,080    964,201     99,967
    AR    324,143        144    111,115    435,450     65,231
    CA    323,177      4,086          0    379,994    169,975
    CT    451,504      8,627          0    460,147     94,411
    DE     90,589     19,829      1,798    112,216     18,273
    FL     77,747        932     61,745    140,424     15,739
    GA    591,550      3,500    462,198  1,057,286    111,005
    IL  1,704,291      7,628          0  1,711,951    375,026
    IN  1,338,710     11,428          0  1,350,428    265,295
    IA    673,779      1,069          0    674,913    139,316
[3] KS    106,390        625          2    107,206     27,976
    KY    919,484     10,684    225,483  1,155,684    180,589
    LA    357,456     18,647    331,726    708,002     83,456
    ME    626,947      1,327          0    628,279    122,238
    MD    515,918     83,942     87,189    687,049    102,715
    MA  1,221,432      9,602          0  1,231,066    258,419
    MI    736,142      6,799          0    749,113    164,007
    MN    169,395        259          0    172,023     41,226
    MS    353,899        773    436,631    791,305     70,295
    MO  1,063,489      3,572    114,931  1,182,012    232,781
    NH    325,579        494          0    326,073     63,610
[4] NJ    646,699     25,318         18    672,035    132,219
    NY  3,831,590     49,005          0  3,880,735    796,881
    NC    629,942     30,463    331,059    992,622    115,369
    OH  2,302,808     36,673          0  2,339,511    459,534
    OR     52,160        128          0     52,465     15,781
    PA  2,849,259     56,949          0  2,906,215    555,172
    RI    170,649      3,952          0    174,620     35,502
    SC    291,300      9,914    402,406    703,708     55,046
    TN    826,722      7,300    275,719  1,109,801    159,353
    TX    420,891        355    182,566    604,215     92,145
    VT    314,369        709          0    315,098     60,580
[5] VA  1,047,299     58,042    490,865  1,596,318    196,587
[5] VA1   691,424     55,269    472,494  1,219,299    129,786
[5] WV    355,875      2,773     18,371    377,019     66,801
    WI    773,693      1,171          0    775,881    159,335
 Territories                                           76,214 (all terr.)
    CO     34,231         46          0     34,277
    DK      2,576          0          0      4,837
    NE     28,696         67         15     28,841
[6] NV      6,812         45          0      6,857
[7] NM     82,979         85          0     93,516
    UT     40,125         30         29     40,273
    WA     11,138         30          0     11,594
    DC     60,763     11,131      3,185     75,080     12,797

The bottom line:

             White    Free Colored   Slave     Total     Military
   Union*  21,475,373   355,310     432,650  22,339,989  4,559,872
   CSA      5,447,220   132,760   3,521,110   9,103,332  1,064,193
    *includes MO and KY, DC, and territories

The following statistics are from J.C.G. Kennedy, Supt. of Census,
_Preliminary Report on the Eighth Census, 1860_ (Washington, G.P.O., 1862)
and from Annie Abel, _The American Indian as Slaveholder and
Secessionist_ (1915, repr 1992: U of Nebraska Pr)

   The Five Civilized Tribes
     Tribe     White   Free Colored  Slave    Indian
     Choctaw    802        67        2,297    18,000
     Cherokee   713        17        2,504    21,000
     Creek      319       277        1,651    13,550
     Chickasaw  146        13          917     5,000
     Seminole     8        30            0     2,267

The following statistics are from J.C.G. Kennedy, Supt. of Census,
_Agriculture in the United States in 1860_ (Washington: G.P.O., 1864)
[ratios calculated by JMS]

State   Slave-   Slaveholders in   slaves per
        holders   white pop. (%)   slaveholder
 AL      33,730      6.4             12.9
 AR      11,481      3.5              9.7
 DE         587      0.65             3.1
 FL       5,152      6.6             12.0
 GA      41,084      6.9             11.2
 KY      38,645      4.2              5.8
 LA      22,033      6.1             15.0
 MD      13,783      2.7              6.3   
 MS      30,943      8.7             14.1
 MO      24,320      2.3              4.7
 NC      34,658      5.5              9.6
 SC      26,701      9.2             15.1
 TN      36,844      4.4              7.5
 TX      21,878      5.2              8.3
 VA  [5] 52,128      5.0              9.4
 VA1 [5] 48,523      7.0              9.7
 WV  [5]  3,605      1.0              5.1
 Total  393,967      4.9 [8]         10.0

The number of free households in the 15 slave states was 1,515,605.
Since the census generally counted only one slaveholder per household, the
number of slaveholding households will be roughly equal to the number of
slaveholders. So there were roughly 393,967 slaveholding households in
1860. Taking the ratio shows that 26% of Southern households were
slaveholding households.

Notes:
[1] Total includes other racial/ethnic groups.
[2] White males aged 18-45
[3] KS became a state in 1861; it was a territory during the Census.
[4] "Slaves" are "colored apprentices for life."
[5] VA includes the present state of WV, VA1 is just the present state of
VA, and WV is just the present state WV. The whole of VA in 1860
(i.e. VA1 plus WV) was used in later calculations.
[6] NV became a state in 1864.
[7] White includes "half-breeds."
[8] White population used was the total of the 15 states (WV included
with VA) in the table.

 

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