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04 When did state X secede? (U.S. Civil War: The beginning)




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This article is from the U.S. Civil War FAQ, by Justin M. Sanders jsanders@jaguar1.usouthal.edu with numerous contributions by others.

04 When did state X secede? (U.S. Civil War: The beginning)

Before Lincoln's call for troops, the following states seceded:
1. South Carolina, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession, 20 Dec 1860
2. Mississippi, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession, 9 Jan 1861
3. Florida, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession, 10 Jan 1861
4. Alabama, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession, 11 Jan 1861
5. Georgia, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession, 19 Jan 1861
6. Louisiana, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession, 26 Jan 1861
7. Texas, Convention passed Ordinance of Secession, 1 Feb 1861, to
take effect 2 Mar 1861 provided it was ratified by the voters
on 23 Feb 1861 (approved 46,153 to 14,747). Texas admitted to the
Confederacy, 2 Mar 1861.

After Lincoln's call for troops on 15 Apr 1861, the following states
seceded:
8. Virginia, Convention rejected secession 4 Apr 1861, Convention
passed Ordinance of Secession 17 Apr 1861 and ratified C.S.A.
Constitution, both subject to ratification of voters 23 May 1861
(approved 132,201 to 37,451). Virginia admitted to CSA 7 May 1861.
9. Arkansas, Convention rejected secession ordinance on 18 Mar 1861
and called for referendum in August, Convention passed Ordinance
of Secession 6 May 1861. Arkansas admitted to C.S.A. 20 May 1861.
10. North Carolina, Voters narrowly rejected (47,705 to 47,611) calling a
Convention 28 Feb 1861. Legislature called Convention 1 May 1861.
Convention passed Ordinance of Secession 20 May 1861. North Carolina
provisionally admitted to CSA 17 May 1861.
11. Tennessee, Voters rejected (69,772 to 57,708) calling a Convention
9 Feb 1861. On 6 May 1861 Legislature passed "Declaration of
Independence" and ratification of CSA Constitution subject to
referendum on 8 June 1861 (approved 104,471 to 47,183). Tennessee
admitted to CSA 17 May 1861.

The following two states never seceded via any mechanism provided by a
"regular" government:
12. Missouri, Convention rejected secession 9 Mar 1861; Convention
reconvened in July 1861 and declared offices of governor and
legislature vacant; rump legislature, meeting in Neosho, passed
Ordinance of Secession 31 Oct 1861 and requested admission to CSA.
Missouri admitted to CSA 28 Nov 1861.
13. Kentucky, southern sympathizers called for convention Oct 1861,
Convention passed Ordinance of Secession 18 Nov 1861. Kentucky
admitted to the CSA 10 Dec 1861.

Sources: Civil War Day-by-Day; Official Records, Ser. IV, Vol 1; D.W.
Crofts, *Reluctant Confederates* (1989); W.L. Buenger, *Secession and the
Union in Texas* (1984).

 

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