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99) Part5 Static Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer Bibliography


This article is from the Static Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer FAQ, by John Moulder jmoulder@its.mcw.edu and the Medical College of Wisconsin with numerous contributions by others.

99) Part5 Static Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer Bibliography

41) M Osbakken, J Griffith & P Taczanowsky: A gross morphologic,
histologic, hematologic, and blood chemistry study of adult and neonatal
mice chronically exposed to high magnetic fields, Magnet. Reson. Med.
3:502-517 (1986).
Mice were raised for varying periods of time in a 1890 mT static
magnetic field. No differences were found in gross and microscopic
morphology, blood counts or blood chemistry.

42) TS Tenforde & M Shifrine: Assessment of the immune responsiveness
of mice exposed to a 1.5-Tesla stationary magnetic field, Bioelectromag.
5:443-446 (1984).
Mice were exposed for 6 days to a 1500 mT static field. No effects on
immune response or on mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation were

43) BD Jankovic et al: Potentiation of immune responsiveness in aging
by static magnetic fields applied to the brain. Role of the pineal
gland, Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 719:410-418 (1994).
Micromagnets (60 mT) were implanted into the brains of rats; controls
were sham-implanted with iron beads. The authors report an enhancement
of animals immune response.

44) RL Davis & S Milham: Altered immune status in aluminum reduction
plant workers, Amer. J. Indust. Med. 18:79-85 (1990).
Authors report that a previous study had found excess lymphoma in
employees of an aluminum reduction plant. Volunteers in similar jobs
has elevated levels of certain classes of immune cells. The authors
state that the cause and significance of the altered immunological
parameters are unknown.

45) A Lerchl et al: Marked rapid alterations in nocturnal pineal
seratonin metabolism in mice and rats exposed to weak intermittent
magnetic fields, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 169:102-108 (1990).
Mice were exposed to fields that were designed to reverse the earth¹s
static field (0.4 mT). The coils were activated 6 times per hour for 5
minutes, so this is a pulsed field experiment. The exposure is reported
to affect seratonin metabolism (but not very much) but not melatonin

46) K Yaga, RJ Reiter, LC Manchester, et al: Pineal sensitivity to
pulsed static magnetic fields changes during the photoperiod, Brain
Research Bulletin 30:153-156 (1993).
Melatonin production in rats was studied after exposure to a pulsed
static magnetic field (1 min pulses for 45 minutes). The static field
appears to have resulted in reversal of the Earth field. Slight
decreases in melatonin production were reported, but only for exposures
at certain times of day.

47) J Olcese et al: Evidence for the involvement of the visual system
in mediating magnetic field effects on pineal melatonin synthesis in the
rat, Brain Res. 333:382-384 (1985).
Normal and blinded rats exposed to 0.05 and 0.1 mT static fields that
produced a rotation of the horizontal component of the Earth field.
The field is reported to cause a decrease in melatonin in intact, but
not in blinded animals. Whether this suggests that the retina is the
site of action of the magnetic field, or that there are visual clues is

48) RJ Reiter & BA Richardson: Magnetic field effects on pineal
indoleamine metabolism and possible biological consequences, FASEB J.
6:2283-2287 (1992).
Review of the hypothesis linking EMF effects with effects on melatonin
production. The review notes that pulsed fields are the more effective
than static or sinusoidal fields.

49) RJ Reiter: Electromagnetic fields and melatonin production,
Biomed. Pharmacother. 47:439-444 (1993).
"the current data are not sufficient compelling to conclude that any
cancer which may appear to occur in individuals exposed to magnetic
fields has any association with a change in melatonin synthesis"

50) MH Repacholi et al: Guidelines on limits of exposure to static
magnetic fields, Health Phys. 66:100-106 (1994).
The ICNIRP occupational guideline is that continuous occupational
exposure should be limited to a time-weighted value that does not exceed
200 mT. Continuous exposure of the general public should not exceed 40
mT. These values may not be suitable for people with cardiac
pacemakers, ferromagnetic implants and implanted electronic devices; for
these people, exposures should be kept below 0.5 mT.


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