This article is from the Static Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer FAQ, by John Moulder email@example.com and the Medical College of Wisconsin with numerous contributions by others.
1) CI Kowalczuk, ZJ Sienkiewicz & RD Saunders: Biological Effects of
Exposure to Non-ionizing Electromagnetic Fields and Radiation I.
Static Electric and Magnetic Fields (NRPB-R238), National Radiation
Protection Board, Chilton, (1991).
"There are insufficient data on which to base restrictions on human
exposure to static electric fields. For static magnetic fields, the
data suggest that occupational exposures should not exceed about [2000
mT]... Prolonged exposure to static magnetic fields of up to [2000 mT]
does not produce any detrimental effects of many developmental,
behavioral and physiological parameters in animals... There is no
evidence of mutagenesis or carcinogenesis... In view of the relative
lack of information regarding the possible long-term effects, it is
reasonable on present evidence to restrict the exposure of workers so
that the average exposure over one day does not exceed 200 mT and to
restrict exposure of members of the public to less than 200 mT."
2) MA Stuchly: Human exposure to static and time-varying magnetic
fields, Health Phys. 51:215-225 (1986).
Review of human exposures to static and ELF magnetic fields, and
regulations covering exposure.
3) NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Report: Alumax of South Carolina,
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health, (1994).
In an aluminum reduction plant, static fields were as high as 70 mT
with time-weighted averages of 15-16 mT.
4) R VonKaenelet al: The determination of the exposure to
electromagnetic fields in aluminum electrolysis, In: "Light Metals
1994", U Mannweiler., ed., The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, pp.
Static fields were 4-20 mT at various locations around the pots.
Personnel monitoring showed average fields of 2-4 mT, with very large
variations and peaks as high at 25 mT.
5) JL Marsh et al: Health effect of occupational exposure to steady
magnetic fields, Amer. Indust. Hygiene Assoc. J. 43:387-394 (1982).
Case-control study of electrolysis workers exposed to a static fields
of up to 20 mT. No significant general health effects were found
(cancer was not explicitly studied). Some effects on white cell counts
were found, but they were not statistically significant.
6) L Barregard et al: Cancer among workers exposed to strong static
magnetic fields (letter), Lancet October 19, 1985:892 (1985).
Cohort study of Swedish workers in a chloralkali plant. Measured
fields ranged from 4 to 29 mT. SMRs for total cancer were 0.1 (.3-1.6)
for workers exposed for greater than 1 year, and 0.8 (0.3-1.9) for
workers exposed for more than 5 years.
7) TF Budinger et al: Biological effects of static magnetic fields,
In: "Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Society for Magnetic
Resonance in Medicine", Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine,
Berkeley, pp. 113-114 (1984).
Case-control study of worker who were exposed to static magnetic
fields from accelerators. Exposures ranged from 0.5 mT for long periods
of time to 300 mT for short periods. No significant increase in
malignant or benign neoplasms was found.
8) S Milham: Mortality in aluminum reduction plant workers, J. Occup.
Med. 21:475-480 (1979).
Cohort study with an emphasis on air quality, the exposure to static
fields was coincidental. Elevated mortality from lymphatic and
hematopoietic cancer and fatal benign brain tumors. Leukemia and brain
cancer mortality was not elevated.
9) HE Rockette & VC Arena: Mortality studies of aluminum reduction
plant workers: Potroom and carbon department, J. Occup. Med. 25:549-557
Cohort study of aluminum reduction plant workers designed to
investigate a hypothesized excess of lung cancer, the exposure to static
fields was coincidental. No statistically significant excess cancer
rates were found for any site, although non-significant excesses were
observed for pancreatic cancer, kidney cancer, lymphatic and
10) JM Mur et al: Mortality of aluminium reduction plant workers in
France, Int. J. Epidemiol. 18:257-264 (1987).
Standardized mortality ratio study of workers in aluminum reduction
plants, designed to look for excess lung cancer. The SMR for overall
cancer was 1.09 (0.97-1.22), and no individual types of tumors were
found to be in significant excess.