This article is from the Go FAQ, by Morten PAHLE firstname.lastname@example.org with numerous contributions by others.
The original name for Go is Weich'i or Weiqi, and is still used in
China today. Weiqi literally means 'encircling game'.
The Japanese named the game Igo, but the variant 'Go' has since become
the name which seems to have gained the most acceptance in the
Shudan means 'hand talk' and is, sometimes, a preferred name over Igo.
Goh was one spelling used early in some western countries.
Ranka means rotted axe handle, and is another name for Go.
In Korea, Go is called Baduk.
Goe is the name given to the game by Ing Chang-ki. Ing was a Taiwanese
businessman of considerable wealth, which he used to promote Go. He is
also the father of the Ing rules, the Ing clocks and the Ing equipment
(board, stones and bowls). One of his preferences was to call the game
'Goe', which is still used by some people today. The 'Ing prize' was
(until the end of year 2000, extension still TBD) offered to anyone
who manages to code a strong computer program.