This article is from the Childhood Vaccinations FAQ, by Lynn Gazis-Sax firstname.lastname@example.org with numerous contributions by others.
Because of the small risk of paralytic polio in recipients and contact
of recipients of OPV, it should not be given to anyone who is
immune-compromised or who has immune-compromised family members. (The
PDR has a really long list of immune deficiencies involved, which you
can check if you think anyone in your family falls in this category.)
In these cases, IPV should be given instead. IPV is also recommended
for adults who are at risk for polio (such as unvaccinated adults
travelling to an area where polio is endemic). Both vaccines are
contraindicated for people with an anaphylactic allergy to neomycin or
Vaccine components capable of causing adverse reactions: for both OPV
and IPV, streptomycin, neomycin, and phenol red; for IPV, animal
protein, formaldehyde, and polymyxin B (Travel Medicine Advisor).