This article is from the General Cat Care FAQ, posted to rec.pets.cats newsgroup. Maintained by Cindy Tittle Moore with numerous contributions by others.
On a standard annual physical/examination, your vet should check:
* teeth for tartar/gum swelling
* ears for ear mites and other fungus problems
* body for ringworm (with black light)
* standard bloodwork
* fecal exam for worms
* booster shots for rabies, FeLV, panleukopenia, rhino&co, etc.
* eyes for normal pupil response and normal retinal appearance
* weight, heart rate, temperature
(more on cat health/medical information in Medical Information; also Internet Vet Column)