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Ozone Depletion: Stratospheric Chlorine and Bromine FAQ



Frequently Asked Questions about stratospheric ozone depletion. It is concerned with sources of chlorine and bromine in the earth's stratosphere.

This FAQ about stratospheric ozone depletion concerning sources of chlorine and bromine in the earth's stratosphere was compiled and written by Robert Parson rparson@spot.colorado.edu with numerous contributions by others.

-01 How to get this FAQ (sci.environment)
These files are posted to the newsgroups sci.environment, sci.answers,...
-02 Copyright Statement (sci.environment)
***********************************************************************...
-03 General Information (sci.environment)
This part deals not with ozone depletion per se (that is ...
-04 Caveats, Disclaimers, and Contact Information (sci.environment)
| Caveat: I am not a specialist. In fact, I am not an ...
-05 Where does the Chlorine in the stratosphere come from?
~80% from CFC's and related manmade organic chlorine compounds,...
-06 How has stratospheric chlorine changed with time?
The total amount of chlorine in the stratosphere has increased ...
-07 How will stratospheric chlorine change in the future?
Since the 1987 Montreal Protocol (see Part I) production ...
-08 What are the sources of chlorine in the troposphere?
Let us divide the chlorine-containing compounds found in the ...
-09 In what molecules is _stratospheric_ chlorine found?
The halocarbons described above are all found in the stratosphere, ...
-10 What happens to organic chlorine in the stratosphere?
The organic chlorine compounds are dissociated by UV ...
-11 How do we know that CFC's are photolyzed in the stratosphere?
The UV photodissociation cross-sections for the halocarbons have ...
-12 How is chlorine removed from the stratosphere?
Since the stratosphere is very dry, water-soluble compounds ...
-13 How is chlorine distributed in the stratosphere?
Over the past 20 years an enormous effort has been devoted ...
-14 What happens to the Fluorine from the CFC's?
Most of it ends up as Hydrogen Fluoride, HF. The total amount of ...
-15 Summary of the Evidence (The chlorine cycle)
a. Inorganic chlorine, primarily of natural origin, is ...
-16 Does Bromine contribute to ozone depletion?
Br is present in much smaller quantities than Cl, but it ...
-17 How does bromine affect ozone?
Bromine concentrations in the stratosphere are ~150 times ...
-18 Where does the bromine come from?
a.) Methyl ...
-19 And how about about Iodine?
Since Chlorine and Bromine radicals both enter into ozone-destroying ...
-20 CFC's are 4-8 times heavier than air, so how can they reach the stratosphere?
This is answered in Part I of this FAQ, section 1.3. Briefly,...
-21 CFCs are produced in the Northern Hemisphere, so how do they get down to the Antarctic?
Vertical transport into and within the stratosphere is slow. ...
-22 Sea salt puts more chlorine into the atmosphere than CFC's.
True, but not relevant because this chlorine is in a form (HCl) ...
-23 Volcanoes put more chlorine into the stratosphere than CFC's.
Short Reply: False. Volcanoes account for at most a few percent ...
-24 Space shuttles put a lot of chlorine into the stratosphere.
Simply false. In the early 1970's, when very little was known ...
-25 Most CFC's are decomposed by soil bacteria and other terrestrial mechanisms.
This argument is based upon a misinterpretation of measurements made ...
-26 References for part II (Ozone Depletion: Stratospheric Chlorine and Bromine)
A remark on references: they are neither representative ...
-27 Introductory Reading (Ozone Depletion: Stratospheric Chlorine and Bromine)
[Graedel and Crutzen] T. E. Graedel and P. J. Crutzen,...
-28 Books and Review Articles (Ozone Depletion: Stratospheric Chlorine and Bromine)
[Brasseur and Solomon] G. Brasseur and S. Solomon, _Aeronomy of ...
-29 More specialized references p1 (Ozone Depletion: Stratospheric Chlorine and Bromine)
[AASE] End of Mission Statement, second airborne ...
-30 More specialized references p2 (Ozone Depletion: Stratospheric Chlorine and Bromine)
[Ko et al.] M. K. W. Ko, N.-D. Sze, and M. J. Prather, ...
-31 More specialized references p3 (Ozone Depletion: Stratospheric Chlorine and Bromine)
[Shorter et al.] J. H. Shorter, C. E. Kolb, P. M. Krill, R. A. Kerwin,...









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