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Interpretation Of Lab Test Profiles



This is a fairly encyclopedic source for assistance in interpreting many of the routine lab tests found in commonly ordered blood work profiles. It is aimed primarily at med students and residents, but others with some general background in human physiology may find it useful.

Interpretation Of Lab Test Profiles was compiled and written by Ed Uthman, MD (uthman@neosoft.com).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Many thanks to Michael Gayler, FIBMS, DMS, CertHSm (MLSO2, Department of Chemical Pathology, Leicester Royal Infirmary) gaylers@zetnet.co.uk for the excellent review and comments, and for the labor of translating American to SI units.

NOTE

Please send all constructive comments regarding this FAQ to Ed Uthman, MD uthman@neosoft.com. I am especially interested in correcting any errors of commission or omission.

DISCLAIMER

This article is provided "as is" without any express or implied warranties. While reasonable effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, the author assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from use of the information herein.

Copyright (c) 1994-97, Edward O. Uthman. This material may be reformatted and/or freely distributed via online services or other media, as long as it is not substantively altered. Authors, educators, and others are welcome to use any ideas presented herein, but I would ask for acknowledgment in any published work derived therefrom. Commercial use is not allowed without the prior written consent of the author.

version 2.1, 9/10/97

-01 Interpretation Of Lab Test Profiles
Ed Uthman, MD ...
-02 REFERENCE RANGES ("normal ranges")
Because reference ranges (except for some lipid studies) ...
-03 UNITS OF MEASUREMENT: America against the world
American labs use a different version of the metric system ...
-04 SODIUM
Increase in serum sodium is seen in conditions with water ...
-05 POTASSIUM
Increase in serum potassium is seen in states characterized ...
-06 CHLORIDE
Increase in serum chloride is seen in dehydration, ...
-07 CO2 CONTENT
Increase in serum CO2 content for the most part ...
-08 ANION GAP
Increased serum anion gap reflects the presence of ...
-09 GLUCOSE
Hyperglycemia can be diagnosed only in relation to ...
-10 UREA NITROGEN (BUN)
Serum urea nitrogen (BUN) is increased in acute and ...
-11 CREATININE
Increase in serum creatinine is seen any renal ...
-12 BUN:CREATININE RATIO
BUN:creatinine ratio is usually >20:1 in prerenal and ...
-13 URIC ACID
Increase in serum uric acid is seen idiopathically and in ...
-14 INORGANIC PHOSPHORUS
Hyperphosphatemia may occur in myeloma, Paget's disease ...
-15 CALCIUM
Hypercalcemia is seen in malignant neoplasms (with or ...
-16 IRON
Serum iron may be increased in hemolytic, megaloblastic, ...
-17 ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (ALP)
Increased serum alkaline phosphatase is seen in states ...
-18 LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE (LD or "LDH")
Increase of LD activity in serum may occur in any injury ...
-19 ALT (SGPT)
Increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, ...
-20 AST (SGOT)
Increase of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, formerly ...
-21 GGTP (GAMMA-GT)
Gamma-glutamyltransferase is markedly increased in ...
-22 BILIRUBIN
Serum total bilirubin is increased in hepatocellular ...
-23 Drugs known to cause cholestasis include the following:
-24 Drugs known to cause hepatocellular damage include the following:
-25 TOTAL PROTEIN
Increase in serum total protein reflects increases in albumin,...
-26 ALBUMIN
Increased absolute serum albumin content is not seen as ...
-27 GLOBULIN, A/G RATIO
Globulin is increased disproportionately to ...
-28 T3 UPTAKE
This test measures the amount of thyroxine-binding ...
-29 THYROXINE (T4)
This is a measurement of the total thyroxine in the serum,...
-30 FTI (T7)
This is a convenient parameter with mathematically accounts ...
-31 ASSESSMENT OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS RISK: Triglycerides, Cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol, Chol/HDL ratio
All of these studies find greatest utility in assessing the risk ...
-32 TRIGLYCERIDES
Markedly increased triglycerides (>500 mg/dL) usually ...
-33 RBC (Red Blood Cell) COUNT
The RBC count is most useful as raw data for calculation of ...
-34 HEMOGLOBIN, HEMATOCRIT, MCV (mean corpuscular volume), MCH (mean corpuscular hemoglobin), MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration)
Strictly speaking, anemia is defined as a decrease in total body ...
-35 POLYCYTHEMIA
Polycythemia is defined as an increase in total body erythrocyte mass....
-36 RDW (Red cell Distribution Width)
The red cell distribution width is a numerical expression ...
-37 PLATELET COUNT
Thrombocytosis is seen in many inflammatory disorders ...
-38 WBC (White Blood Cell) COUNT
The WBC is really a nonparameter, since it simply represents ...
-39 GRANULOCYTES
Granulocytes include neutrophils (bands and segs), eosinophils,...
-40 NEUTROPHILS
Neutrophilia is seen in any acute insult to the body,...
-41 EOSINOPHILS
Eosinophilia is seen in allergic disorders and ...
-42 BASOPHILS
Basophilia, if absolute (see above) and of marked ...
-43 LYMPHOCYTES
Lymphocytosis is seen in infectious mononucleosis, ...
-44 MONOCYTES
Monocytosis is seen in the recovery phase of many ...
-45 REFERENCES
Tietz, Norbert W., Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests,...









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